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- ItemFrom known to unknown: language and Literature learning and teaching in Uganda(Language teaching and resource center, School of education Makerere University, 2000-04) Gulere, Cornelius WambiThe declining enrolment and standards of English language and Literature in Uganda can be attributed to three major factors: (i) Communication incompetence due to a colonial language education legacy (ii) Disparity between 'nationalistic' and individual students’ career goal and Objectives (iii) Poor feedback and evaluation process
- ItemPolicies and Practices Towards Women's Empowerment: Policy advocacy by Gender focused NGOs and the realities of grassroots women in Uganda(University of Cape Town, South Africa, 2001-08) Nabacwa, Mary SsonkoThis is an exploratory study that sought to analyze the causes of the gaps between the policy advocacy work of gender focussed NGOs at the national level and the realities of the grassroots women in Uganda. The study was designed to identify the factors that affect the effectiveness of policy advocacy work aimed at empowering grassroots women, its linkages with the issues of women at the grassroots level and make recommendations for improvement. The study was based on qualitative methods of data collection and analysis. Data was collected from six key informants from National Association of women organisations in Uganda (NAWOU), Uganda Women's Network (UWONET), OXFAM, Forum for Women in Democracy (FOWODE), Federation of Uganda Women Lawyers (FIDA) and ActionAid Uganda( AAU). It is also based on secondary data from past literature on the subject and from the above NGOs. Thirdly the study is based on the active participation of the writer in the advocacy by gender focused NGOs at the national level for the past three and half years and having worked in Rakai World Vision Uganda Project from 1994 to 1997. The findings are presented under the following themes: • Current situation of women in Uganda, • Policy advocacy by gender focussed NGOs and • Factors affecting policy advocacy with a deeper analysis of the linkages between policy advocacy and grassroots women. The major findings of the study are that while Uganda presents a very good opportunity to ensure that grassroots women actively participate and benefit from advocacy processes, this opportunity has not been fully utilised.
- ItemBiodegradation of Estrogenic Compounds and Its Enhancement in a Membrane Bioreactor – Research Category III, Water Quality(UC Berkeley Center for Water Resources Technical Completion, 2002-09) Hermanowicz, Slawomir W.; Wozei, EleanorIn the project, we investigated enhancement removal of estrogenic activities in activated sludge. These activities are caused by natural and synthetic substances that mimic the effect of the human hormone estrogen and they potentially can disrupt the endocrine systems of exposed species and the reproductive systems of aquatic fauna. Human and animal wastes are a source of natural and synthetic estrogens to the environment since only a fraction is removed in conventional wastewater treatment. A yeast-based assay developed previously was modified to detect the estrogenic activity in wastewater samples. Using the assay, it was possible to quantify estrogenic activity in range equivalent to between approximately 100ng/L to 100g/L of the female hormone 17-estradiol (E2), with sensitivity as low as 0.03ngE2/L. The assay is therefore sensitive to the concentrations of environmental estrogens typically found in wastewater and the new assay may be a useful tool for screening for estrogenic activity. Compared to existing chemical analytical methods, the new test is simpler and covers a wider range of compounds. This is important because by-products of some of the influent estrogens are also active estrogens. For example, E2 is metabolized to estrone and estriol, which are estrogenic. Monitoring the removal of only a few substances may underestimate the estrogenic properties of treatment plant effluents and solids disposed of into the environment. Further experiments were carried out to determine the removal of estrogenic activity from water. Results show that the presence of activated sludge enhances removal of total estrogenic activity by at least 40% within 10-15 days.
- ItemApplication of Information & Communication Technologies (ICTS) in Knowledge Management (KM): Case Studies of the Centre for Basic Research Library and the Privatization unit Library in Uganda.(2004) Kaddu, SarahThe paper examines the concept "Knowledge Management (KM)". It examines how Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs) could be effectively applied in Knowledge management in this context, I CTs advantages and disadvantages are analyzed along with challenges and strategies towards effective ICT application in KM. Further, the paper is based on content analysis of numerous documents and electronic sources in KM. It was also based on a mini survey and follow up interview of the Centre for Basic Research (CBR) and Privatization Unit Libraries (PU) in view of establishing what the staff and users in these Libraries understand by the term KM, Processes of KM and how ICT is applied in KM.
- ItemTrade Liberalization, Export and Import Growth: Evidence from Uganda(2009) Kilimani, Nicholas; Sebaggala, RichardThe study explores the impact of trade liberalization on export and import growth in Uganda. A number of developing countries have opened up their own economies to take full advantage of the resultant opportunities for economic development through trade. Proponents of trade liberalization envisage positive results emanating from the increased competition in the sector. For instance, liberalization aids competition in the market, by increasing the basket of goods and services with better quality and lower prices. However, trade liberalization in developing countries has been criticized for increasing import penetration on the pretext of opening up the sector to more competition. The reason is that trade policy reforms tend to have a more immediate effect on the imports than on the exports. This concern has motivated researchers to investigate whether or not the impact of trade liberalization has been greater on export growth than on import growth. This is because Uganda is one of the countries to have implemented significant economic reforms, including the liberalization of the trade regime, over the last two decades and a half. These reforms have been both external and domestic. Substantial progress has been made to reduce tariff and non-tariff barriers through the EAC. The study investigated the issue using macro and micro analysis of the Ugandan economy. The macro analysis was employed by estimating the export and import models estimated using Vector Error-Correction modeling (VECM) using time series macroeconomic data for the period 1981-2009. The results of the study suggest that trade liberalization has led more to growth in imports than exports. The macro study findings are in line with previous observations made by Morrissey, et al., (2003); Santos-Paulino (2003); Santos-Paulino & Thirlwall (2004) and Hye & Mashkoor (2010). With regard to the micro analysis several, issues under the trade sector were highlighted that could be linked to the macro evidence which were; larger growth in imports than exports. Such critical issues included the adverse effect of the dismantling of the marketing boards, the inadequacy of the trade sector infrastructure, the low value addition and limited research and dissemination of the ever-changing trends in international trade regarding the products on high demand, the standards required to access such markets as well as the absence of value chains in the tradeables sectors. These have served to inhibit export growth. These issues were manifested at a macro level analysis for instance in the weak significance of the coefficient of the foreign income as well in that of the reel exchange rate in the export growth model. This specifically is in terms of the inability for exports to substantially respond to changes in foreign income as well as prices. The findings point to a number of policy implications that require attention. The need for vigorous marketing campaigns for Uganda’s exports and improvements in the physical infrastructure in terms of road, rail and port as well as the trade mechanism specifically, the need to streamline production and marketing in order to boost the country’s export potential. This strictly calls for the development of value chains in the entire tradable sectors. A very good case of best practice that would potentially increase Uganda’s exports is that of Good African coffee which is operational in one sub region in the coffee sector. This needs to be replicated across all tradeable sectors in a scrupulous manner. This in addition also involves expansion and harnessing the production and export of new dynamic products such as fish, vegetables and cut–flowers away from the traditional commodity exports. Such interventions according to the authors are among the means to close the gap between export and import growth following trade liberalization. Any interventions short of these may not in any way help to close the ever increasing trade deficit which has been discussed at length in the background to the economy section of the study.
- ItemThe Challenges of repackaging Traditional Knowledge in the Context of Intellectual Property Rights: Case of Zimbabwe and Uganda(2009-10) Kaddu, Sarah; Chisita, CollenceThis paper is based on two case studies of Uganda and Zimbabwe. It gives a brief overview of Traditional Knowledge (TK) and defines the key concepts: TK/IK, Intellectual Property and repackaging of information. Through observation, face to face interviews and literature analysis, the paper discusses: Role of Higher Education Institutions in promoting TK, challenges of TK with special reference to challenges related to characteristics of TK, Challenges of protecting TK and Challenges of Repackaging TK. The paper further discusses women’s role in the preservation of TK and the reasons why traditional knowledge is lowly appreciated with recommendations towards repackaging traditional knowledge to spur development.
- ItemEnhancing democracy and good governance; a curriculum proposal for information/knowledge management professionals (IKMPs) in the SCECSAL region.(2010) Kigongo-Bukenya, Isaac M. N.; Kaddu, SarahPurpose – This paper seeks to advance the case for designing an information and knowledge management curriculum (IKMC) to produce information and knowledge management professionals (IKMPs) in the Standing Conference of Eastern, Central and Southern Africa Library and Information Associations (SCECSAL) region. It highlights challenges and solutions and proposes a model IKMC. Design/methodology/approach – The paper is based on the analysis of literature on Library and Information Science (LIS) curriculum design, implementation and review; research findings by renowned LIS curriculum experts; discussions and sharing experiences with colleagues in LIS education institutions – Eastern African School of Library and Information Science and LIS departments at the Uganda Christian University and Kyambogo University in addition to the author’s research and publications on curriculum design and management. Findings – The paper posits that the SCECSAL region is already in the Information and Knowledge Society (IKS) and that appropriate information and knowledge (IK) are pre-requisites to the promotion and sustainability of democracy and good governance (Gg). It emphasises that information and knowledge management (IKM) are the corner stones of the IKS, because they constitute the framework of theory and competencies vital in managing information and knowledge. Furthermore, effective IKM is the pillar of producing the IKMPs themselves, a product of appropriate and well managed IKMC. The paper proposes an IKMC Model capable of producing IKMPs in the SCECSAL region. Originality/value – The proposed curriculum model should be the framework to be adopted by the LIS education and training institutions in the SCECSAL region to produce IKMPs with theory and competencies to manage the IKS towards enhancing democracy and Gg.
- ItemUgandan radio as a political space and the policing thereof(2010) Chibita, Monica B.The potential of radio as a political space for contestation during and between elections is probably no longer debatable. Radio in sub-Saharan Africa has over the last two decades been dubbed the people’s medium (van de Veur 2002, Bourgault 1995, Daloz and Verrier-Frechette 2000, Mwesige 2009). The power of radio in Africa in particular comes from the relatively to extremely low literacy rates in most sub-Saharan countries, most print media still being published in the colonial languages and television in most parts of Africa remaining an urban, elite entertainment medium. Radio is relatively affordable, requires no literacy to listen to and transcends the most formidable language barriers. Because of all this, radio has been ideal for enabling the majority rural populations in Africa to participate in public debate on matters relating to their governance. Harnessing the full political potential of radio, though, has still been elusive because building on the colonial legacy, post-colonial African governments have perceived radio’s role in terms of a convenient medium for “disseminating” pre-packaged information rather than as an arena for enhancing participation and the contestation of ideas, representations and identities. Although the political and economic developments of the 1990s have forced most African countries to open up the airwaves and with this, expand the space for political contestation, however, many of these governments still manifest a degree of nostalgia for those days when government had near absolute control of the airwaves and could determine which viewpoints were given airplay. This is evident in both judicial and extra-judicial attempts to police the medium. Radio has on its part displayed a high degree of resilience, often going underground or online and continuing to serve as an avenue for political expression for large numbers of citizens.
- ItemEnvironmental factors and graduate start up in Uganda(2010) Katono, Isaac Wasswa; Heintze, AnnaPurpose: A major concern in many countries is the failure to see high levels of apparent intent to start up amongst graduates. This study investigates the relationship between social and closer valuation and intention to start a business by graduates in Uganda.
- ItemThe Enhancement of East African Universities’ Contribution towards the Attainment of Millennium Development Goal 5-Improving Maternal Health(Bradford Print Shoppe, 2011) Froese, Jean Chamberlain; Ssonko, Mary; Angina, Bonaventure Michael Okello; Namuyonga, Faith; Nakabembe, Eve; Kakembo, FredrickImproving maternal health was recognized by the international community as a key component of the United Nations 2000 Millennium Summit initiative to reduce worldwide hunger, poverty and disease. All participating countries agreed to work toward the eight Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) and Millennium Development Goal 5 (MDG-5) in particular, which focuses on reducing the global maternal mortality ratio by 75 percent by 2015 compared to 1990 rates. According to recent estimates, exciting progress towards reducing maternal mortality has been made in many developing regions, including sub-Saharan Africa and Southern Asia where the majority of maternal deaths occur. Despite this important progress however, an estimated 358,000 maternal deaths occurred worldwide in 2008. Worse still, developing countries account for 99 percent, or 355,000, of all deaths. Sub-Saharan Africa and Southern Asia account for 87 percent of global maternal deaths, (313,000 deaths). It has also been estimated that, in sub-Saharan Africa, a woman’s risk of dying from preventable or treatable complications of pregnancy and childbirth over the course of her life time is 1 in 31, compared to only 1 in 4300 in developed regions (United Nations, 2010).1 Sub-Saharan African countries have much to gain from the realization and achievement of the MDGs. This takes the involvement of different stakeholders including universities. However, what role(s) are the universities in Sub-Saharan Africa playing in educating students about MDGs and, especially, MDG-5? Given that current and future Sub-Saharan Africa University students are considered to be the elites in their countries and will become decision makers and activists, a study on the Enhancement of East African Universities’ Contribution towards the Attainment of MDG 5 reveals that universities can, and should play a pivotal role in accelerating progress.
- ItemHousehold drinking water characteristics in a peri-urban community: the case of Kifumbira Zone, Kampala, Uganda(35th WEDC International Conference, Loughborough, UK, 2011) Nabasirye, L.; Kulabako, R.; Atukunda, V.; Wozei, Eleanor; Kinobe, Joel; Okurut, Kennan; Arinaitwe, D.A study to determine the drinking water quality improvement practises at household level was undertaken in Kifumbira Zone, a Kampala peri-urban area, Uganda. The socio-economic conditions of 150 households were identified using questionnaires and in-depth interviews. Solar water disinfection (SODIS) was introduced to 10 households and water from their boiled drinking water and SODIS treated water was monitored for three months. The social survey indicated that boiling was the most common method applied to improve the drinking water quality – mainly using charcoal and electricity. 65% of the respondent households boiled their drinking water, while the rest consumed it unboiled due to the high cost of charcoal. The raw water sources exhibited microbiological contamination as evidenced by the presence of thermotolerant coliforms and high risk scores on the sanitary inspections conducted. There was a statistically significant difference (p<0.05; n=15) in the mean count of thermotolerant coliforms for boiled and SODIS treated water.
- ItemCollateral damage during armed conflict: inevitable or a rule of the game?(2011) Busingye, GodardThis article discusses the concept of collateral damage. Under international humanitarian law, collateral damage is generally understood to mean the unintentional or incidental damage affecting facilities, equipment, or personnel, occurring as a result of military actions directed against targeted opposing military forces or facilities. The basic ethical value of principles of international humanitarian law is utilitarianism or ethical value of consequence. Utilitarianism defines the morally right action as that action that maximizes some non-moral good such as pleasure or happiness and minimizes some non-moral evil such as pain or misery, in situations of armed conflict, the destruction of the opposing forces or their property. Since armed conflicts cannot be stopped by law, the dilemma of legal scholars, politicians and the military remains how to minimize collateral damage once armed conflicts break out. A general conclusion drawn from the discussion is that collateral damage is an inevitable aspect of armed conflicts.
- ItemExamining Technical Issues of the World Digital Library in Uganda: Challenges and Projects.(2011-11) Kaddu, Sarah; Kalule, EzraWith the agreement and subsequent signing of the Memorandum of Understanding between the Library of Congress (LC) and the National Library of Uganda (NLU) in 2009, NLU became an active partner institution of the World Digital Library (WDL). Since then, technical processes related to digitizing Uganda’s cultural heritage have been managed. These include: identification of digitizable cultural materials/content selection, scanning, metadata, preservation and conservation and the creation of the Uganda Digital Repository. The aim of this paper was to examine the challenges encountered in managing the technical activities and propose solutions for better management of the WDL in Uganda. Objectives included: to examine the technical services involved in the digitisation process; to identify challenges faced in executing the technical processes; and to identify solutions to the challenges. Data collection was effected through analysis of WDL literature relevant to technical activities in general and the WDL (Uganda) in particular; participant observation of technical processes; and a Focus Group Discussion with employees. Personal experience also applied in explaining some aspects of the research. The paper should generate critical information and debate on the management of WDL technical processes, the challenges, and also strategies to overcome the challenges. The paper should benefit the project administrators, staff and other stakeholders in working towards better performance of the WDL in general and WDL (Uganda) in particular.
- ItemRevisiting impediments to women’s land decision-making Processes in Uganda(2012) Busingye, Godard; Busingye, GodardDecision-making for women is a necessary condition for them to participate in various aspects of their social lives as individuals. Demand for women to participate in land decision-making processes is justifiable considering that for a long time, they have been denied that human right by the social forces which permeate their daily lives. The international human rights legal regime recognizes decision-making for women as a cornerstone for all the developmental aspects of humanity. This article identifies and revisits the main impediments to women’s land decision-making processes in Uganda with a view to creating awareness about their evils in respect to the denial of women’s rights. The impediments identified and discussed include custom, colonial rule, colonial education and religion all of which are informed by the ideology of patriarchy. The ideology of patriarchy, whether embedded in African custom or western social fabric and legal systems has a negative impact on women’s right to decision-making.
- ItemAn overview of African christian research(Oxford Centre for Religion and Public Life Stellenbosch University, 2012) Byaruhanga, ChristopherThe African Church has a compelling, creative and - sometimes - complex story to share with the worldwide church. African Christian research is a vital component in the telling of that story. The way in which that story is told is one of the most important components of African Christian research. One of the fundamental errors of researchers today is that they are telling the story of African Christianity “as if the Christian Church were in Africa, but not of Africa.” This presentation posits that to be meaningful and empowering, African Christian research must, of necessity, include African thought and ideas from inception through completion to the implementation of recommendations arising from the research.
- ItemIll-health and labour market outcomes in Uganda: evidence from 2005/06 national household survey(2012) Matovu, Fred; Birungi, Patrick; Sebaggala, RichardThis study set out to examine the impact of ill-health on labour market outcomes in Uganda using UNHS 2005/06. Specifically, the study examined the potential economic loss of ill-health and the effects of ill-health on labour market participation, productivity and labour supply across gender and residence. We estimated three models: labour market participation, labour productivity and labour supply models. Ordinary Least Squares and two-stage Instrumental variable estimation methods were used to estimate the impact of ill-health on productivity and labour supply. The study results show that the cost of absenteeism due to ill-health was estimated to be equivalent to USD 1. 8m per year, about 0.02% of GDP in 2005. The annual average number of days worked falls as health state deteriorates and that poor health significantly lowers the number of days worked in year compared to good health. Malaria was found to be a major cause of illness among workers despite the existing cost-effective and efficacious interventions to combat malaria. The study recommends increased support to the health sector to enhance performance of the existing health interventions and improve access to healthcare services particularly to the poor. The study revealed that ill-health negatively impacts economic growth through reduced economic output due to work absenteeism. This is implies that investment in health programs has economic value by averting GDP loss due to poor health of workers. In addition, ill-health of workers affects labour market outcomes through labour supply and labour force participation but not labour productivity. The results therefore calls for health improving interventions in countries were funding to the health sector as remained low and stagnant. The improvement in labour participation and supply as result of improved health generates economic benefits to worker, the household, employer and overall economy and therefore a feasible poverty-reducing strategy.
- ItemInformation Communication Technology (ICT) utilization in Uganda local governments; why low uptake?(2012-12-08) Kyakulumbye, Stephen; Muhenda, Mary Basaasa; Namanya, AnacletThe study was conducted in Local Governments’ in Uganda where a total of 65 respondents out of a total of 69 representing 94.2% response rate was realised after administering the study instruments over a period of six (6) months. Those Local Governments that had benefited greatly from the Uganda Governments’ ICT Infrastructure Development Project were purposively selected. Data was analysed using different statistical techniques which included descriptive statistics mainly mean and standard deviation, Pearson Product Moment Correlation Coefficient to establish the relationships between variables and Multiple Regression analysis to establish the effect of factors on ICT utilization. At bivariate level, organizational support systems, ICT infrastructure and users’ perceptions had a strong relationship with ICT utilization. Multiple regression analysis revealed that only user perceptions and organisational support had a significant positive effect on ICT utilization. Recommendations are that the Government should formulate and disseminate policies to Local Governments to regulate ICT digital divides, address strategies to change users’ negative perception towards ICT utilization and offer support to Local Government administrators to enhance ICT utilization. Further research may consider areas such as taking a comparative study to assess views from at least one or two Local Governments in Sub-Saharan Africa preferably in the East African region.
- ItemThe management practices of ICT integration in the curriculum of the primary schools in Uganda(The 8th International Conference on e-learning Capetown University of Capapeninsular university of Technology, 2013) Kyakulumbye, Stephen; Katono, Isaac WasswaThe study investigates how ICT integration in the primary school curriculum is managed in Uganda. School management practices were conceptualized as planning, organization and coordination. The dependent variable is ICT integration. The study is a cross sectional survey using mainly quantitative data. The population comprised teachers and school head teachers in Mukono District in Uganda. Data was collected using self administered questionnaires using a likert scale. The response rate of 94.2% was sufficient to rely on the results of this study. Data was analyzed using descriptive statistical analysis, correlation analysis (Pearson Product Moment Correlation Coefficient) and multiple regression analysis to establish the causal influence of management practices on ICT integration. The major finding of this study was that planning, coordination and organization significantly impacts ICT integration. A multiple regression analysis revealed that all the management practices had a casual effect on ICT integration. Recommendations are made that the state should formulate and implement policies to schools to regulate ICT implementation and prescribe strategies to influence teachers’ attitude to ICT integration, and offer support to school management to enhance their management practices in order to manage the ICT integration process into the curriculum. In addition, based on the research, we propose that more software and hardware should be made available to schools. Further research may measure the management styles and change management strategies that may be adopted in order to successfully integrate ICT into the primary school curriculum. Such a study may be triangulated with the qualitative views from the respondents.
- ItemFinancial literacy and household investment choices in Uganda(2013) Kasalirwe, Fred; Lokina, RazackThis study, aims at investigating the relationship between financial literacy and household investment choices. Specifically, the study establishes whether households with high financial literacy levels are more likely to choose to invest; through a bank investment account, with an informal group, in a personal business or invest in Agriculture. Financial literacy is measured using three questions that capture an understanding of the basic financial concepts of interest rate, discounting and borrowing. Both univariate and multivariate analysis techniques and a Probit model are used to tease out the levels of financial literacy, its determinants and its relationship with household investment choices. The study results reveal low levels of financial literacy in Uganda. Also, the study reveals that financial literacy is significantly associated with household socio-demographic factors. The study finds that, financial literacy is positively and significantly associated with household investment choices. The study establishes a key investment venture of Agriculture which requires to be revamped since it is neglected yet it is still very essential to the country’s economy. The results also contribute to the government’s National Financial Literacy Strategy by establishing the population segments that is most/least financially literate hence such initiatives should be directed towards such population groups with low financial literacy levels.
- ItemOn the challenge of adopting standard EHR systems in developing countries(Association for Computing Machinery (ACM), 2013) Ssembatya, Richard; Kayem, Anne V.D.M.; Mardsen, GaryElectronic health record (EHR) systems are a popular mechanism for accessing health records in the developed world and have contributed towards improved and cost-effective health care management. However, the development of appropriate and scalable EHR systems in developing countries has been difficult to achieve because of certain limitations inherent in the technological infrastructure. In this paper, we present a comparative study of 19 EHR systems in terms of the security and usability of these systems within the context of the developing world. Our aim was to investigate whether online health services designed for developed countries can be adopted for EHR systems in developing countries. The investigation was based on a number of dimensions such as development environment, system platform, type and access control standards found in the National Institute for Standard and Technology (NIST) and Certification Commission for Health Information Technology (CCHIT). Our research indicates that all the systems evaluated require online access control decisions. Solely relying on an online access control system is limiting, particularly in developing countries where access to the server can be disrupted by a number of disastrous events.