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A Comparative Study on the Trials of Dedan Kimathi by Ngugi Wa Thiongo and Micere Mugo and A man for All Seasons by Robert Bolt
(2024-04-08) Gift Katusiime
This study analyzed the setting, character portrayal and style in two plays. The first one by two African writers Ngugi wa Thiongo and Micere Mugo, The Trials of Dedan Kimathi and the second by a Western writer, Robert Bolt’s A Man for All Seasons. The research was library-based, enhanced by the textual data and electronic sources to establish materials related to the two selected plays, and it was conducted using qualitative analysis to examine the data from the two selected plays. The study employed two theories; Formalism theory, that is concerned with literature as a tool for social transformation, not only for entertainment, but also for teaching, criticizing, correcting and transforming society for the better and Sociological theory that advocates for purposive choice of words and use of figurative language for the analysis and interpretation of data. The two plays are concerned with the battle of conscience of the characters, and are about true historical events that happened in two different countries with a period difference of over 400 years. The plots of the two texts are rooted in the historical events leading to the deaths of the two heroes. These are: Sir Thomas More, the 16th Century Lord Chancellor of England and Dedan Kimathi, the leader of the Mau Mau Liberation Movement that occurred in the mid-20th century in Kenya. The two heroes are versatile, resilient and responsive to change throughout the course of the two selected plays, despite all the trials and temptations that are set before them. They remain true to their consciences and beliefs. Therefore, the study found out that the two plays have a similar thread, they are both tragic and tense, and the characters go through trials and die a tragic death for reasons that are beyond them. Hence, they are symbolic characters because they stand for a greater cause. The setting of the two countries is mainly characterized by rebellion, frustration with the status quo, indignation toward authority, lack of approval of a law, and refusal to comply with the oppressor. Hence tense and rebellious relations.
Barriers to Utilization of Modern Contraceptive Methods Used by Females Aged 15-24 Years. A Case Study of Moyo District
(2024-04-11) Luchio Mua Azoru
Introduction: Modern contraceptives are medical procedures that interfere with reproduction or acts of sexual intercourse. Moyo district contraceptive prevalence used by females aged 15-24 years is 6.03% which is far from the national target. The low contraceptive use among this age group results in high school drops, unwanted pregnancy, early child marriage, and community disputes. General Objective: To evaluate barriers associated with the utilization of modern contraceptive methods used by females aged 15-24 years in Moyo district. Methodology: A cross-sectional design with mixed methods of quantitative and qualitative approaches was used. The reason of using cross-sectional design is to measure the exposure and outcome variables at the same time, its relatively quick and inexpensive, and findings can be used to create an in-depth research study. Multistage sampling was used to draw 423 participants for quantitative and 23 participants were purposively selected for Qualitative study based on knowledge and experience, the results were analyzed using SPSS Version 20 and open code software and presented in the form of tables, pie charts, graphs, and descriptives. Results: The findings indicated marital status OR 3.193, P-Value 0.000 and CI (2.002-5.091), Family/Community influence OR 1.644, P-Value 0.019 and CI (1.084-2.493) and Cultural influence OR 2.004, P-Value 0.006 and CI (1.218-3.298) tend to be associated with using contraceptives. Desire for children OR 0.459, P-Value 0.002 and CI (0.279-0.756) and long waiting time OR 0.442, P-Value 0.003 and CI (0.258-0.756) tend to be not associated with the use of modern contraceptives. Conclusion: The findings of this study have shown both individual and socio-cultural factors contribute to low utilization of modern contraceptives among females aged 15-24 years and these needs to be address with involvement of different stakeholders.
Service Provider Knowledge as A Factor for Family Planning Commodity Availability in Private Class C Drug Shops in Soroti District, Uganda
(Uganda Christian University, 2024-03-28) Tom Makumbi
Introduction: The major objective of the study was to determine the relationship between service provider knowledge and the availability of FP commodities at private Class C drug shops in Soroti District. These outlets can be a vital source of life saving FP commodities but service providers have low levels of knowledge and general biases based in myth/tradition on the effectiveness of modern FP commodities (Stanback, Otterness et al. 2011). Investigating dynamics of a possible relationship was warranted. Methodology: The study adopted an analytical cross-sectional survey design using quantitative techniques. Probabilistic sampling methods and statistical methods of data analysis were employed to establish relationships (if any) and evaluate significance for the phenomenon under study. Results: An average of 103 (91.96%, Max = 111/ Min = 85) of the 112 respondents had requisite FP knowledge and experience. Condoms were found to be the most numerous items, with 59 outlets (52.68%) stocking 1-30 patient packs, while 24 outlets (21.43%) stocked greater than 30 patient packs. ECPs and condoms were available in adequate volumes while COCs and POPS were only available in moderate and very low quantities respectively. POPs were the most out of stock items. Condoms were available in variety exceeding 2 brands but for only 12.5% of the subject facilities where condoms were found to be stocked. None of the facilities stocked female condoms. Lengthy stock-out days, sometimes in excess of 365 days, were reported. Conclusions: Whereas the study found that service providers had requisite knowledge and experience, it did not establish a fundamental significant relationship between service provider knowledge on FP with level of FP commodity availability. This could be attributed to the un-investigated interplay between the dependent variable and other factors such as availability of free public sector commodity supplies, supply chain gaps, client preferences, facility specialization, facility location and perceptions of commodity quality.
Assessment of Factors Associated With Electronic Waste Disposal in Lugazi Municipal Council, Buikwe District
(2024-04-02) Yusufu Kazibwe
Introduction The study was to assess the factors associated with electronic waste disposal in Lugazi Municipal Council. The study specifically sought to assess the knowledge of the community on the effects of poor e-waste disposal, to identify the practices for disposal of e-waste by the community of Lugazi Municipal Council and to explore the extent of awareness and implementation of the existing legislation by Lugazi Municipal Council in the management of electronic waste. Method A descriptive crossectional study design employing both qualitative and quantitative methods was used. A total of 385 respondents were enrolled in the study. Self-administered questionnaires were used to collect quantitative data from the respondents while FGDs and key informant interview guides were used to collect qualitative information from the participants. Quantitative data was analyzed using SPSS version 20 and qualitative data was analyzed using NVIVO. Quantitative data was analyzed at univariate, bivariate and multivariate level. Result. Majority 189 (49.1%) of the respondents were aged between 25-34 years. At bivariate level of analysis, educational level (X2=13.980, df =3, P-value=0.030), knowledge of waste that falls under e-waste (X2=41. X 648, df =4, P-value=0.000), knowledge of the effect of poor e-waste management (X2=450.886, df =3, P-value=0.000,), training on electronic waste management (X2=59.382, df =1, P-value=0.000) and how e-waste is stored in the shop (X2=15.091, df =3, P-value=0.02) was found to significantly influence proper e-waste disposal <0.05 At multivariate level, knowledge of electronic waste (AOR4.8; 95% CI: 1.40-7.39; p= 0.002), Effects of poor electronic waste (AOR=5.8; 95% CI: 1.27-22.42; p= 0.001) and training on electronic waste (AOR=8.8; 95% CI: 1.04-8.68; p= 0.000) were independently associated with proper electronic waste disposal p-value <0.05. Conclusion This study established that only 12% of the respondents properly disposed of e-wastes (i.e disposal after segregation). This study also found out that, knowledge of electronic waste (AOR4.8; 95% CI: 1.40-7.39; p= 0.002). Effects of poor electronic waste (AOR=5.8; 95% CI: 1.27-22.42; p= 0.001). and training on electronic waste (AOR=8.8; 95% CI: 1.04-8.68; p= 0.000) were independently associated with proper electronic waste disposal p-value <0.05 Recommendation From the study findings, there is need for sensitizing electronic dealers on the disposal of electronic waste, by the Municipal Council and the Central Government. There is need for deliberate effort by the ministry of water and environment to disseminate policy guidelines on electronic waste to the population specifically electronic consumers/electronic waste dealers and in order to improve disposal and minimize the effects of poor e-waste disposal, the government should consider putting up e-waste recycling plants so as to reduce the volume of e-waste disposed in the environment.
Utilization of Immunization Services Among Infants 0-12 Months in Juba City
(2024-04-04) John Matata
Vaccine-Preventable Diseases (VPDs) still kill more than half a million children less than five years of age in Africa every year, representing approximately 56% of global deaths caused by VPDs. Globally, one hundred sixteen million children were immunized against Pentavalent (Diphtheria Tetanus Pertussis, HepB and Haemophilus) (Penta). (UNICEF, 2018). The main objective of the study was to determine utilization of immunization services among children 0-12 months in Juba City. The specific objectives were to determine the current level of immunization services, establish the social, economic, and cultural factors, determine the impact of male involvement and determine the health services factors influencing utilization of immunization services. A descriptive cross-sectional study employing mixed method (both qualitative and quantitative) was conducted among 416 participants in Juba City. This was done through systematic random sampling of every 9th household. The respondents were interviewed through structured questionnaires and key informant and focused group discussions were conducted. Findings indicated that at multivariate analysis, factors that statistically influenced immunization of infants aged 0-12 months were; age [x2 = 4.41, p-value 0.005<0.05], gender [x2 = 4.89, p-value 0.009<0.05], marital status [x2 = 2.59, p-value 0.009<0.05], income level [x2 = 1.90, p-value 0.001<0.05], Myths and misconception [x2 = 3.75, p-value 0.002<0.05], availability of health workers [x2 = 4.86, p-value 0.003<0.05], availability of vaccine [x2 = 2.45, p-value 0.006<0.05], and attitude of HWs [x2 = 3.91, p-value 0.004<0.05].It was concluded that the proportion of the children 0-12 months who had been immunized for DPT3 was 87.3% and Measles 55.5% within Juba City which shows incompleteness of immunization within the city; Gender (females), age, marital status and income level were social and economic factors that influenced utilisation of immunisation services. Male involvement factors that have a positive influence on utilisation of immunisation includes father taking their children for routine immunization, reminding the spouse of children’s immunization appointment, providing financial support to go for immunization and accompanying the spouse for routine child immunization. The availability of vaccines, attitude of health workers, and availability of health workers were health services factors that influenced the utilization of immunization services. It was recommended that Government of South Sudan and partners should endeavour to sensitize parents about the importance of completing the immunization schedule, especially with regard to Measles. Mass awareness campaigns be done at the community level together with the community enforce the message. Interventions to improve men's attitude to support their spouses to take their children for immunization be enhanced. Such interventions includes health education or peer education are needed to increase their involvement since their involvement influence immunization uptake positively. Government and partners should employ adequate health workers to address the issue of long waiting time not to discourage parents from bringing their children for services and also purchase and stock all the health facilities with adequate vaccines.
Predictors of Immunization Completion Among 12-23 Months Old Children in Kwania
(2024-04-09) Samfan Thomas Omara
Background Information Immunization is one of the most cost-effective public health interventions to address the morbidity and mortality attributable to vaccine-preventable diseases. However, predictors of immunization completion have not been well studied in Kwania. This study investigated predictors of immunization completion among children aged 12-23 months old in Kwania. Methods: This was a cross-sectional study design, a sample size of 409 children aged 12-23 months was considered. A multistage sampling technique was employed to select the study subject. Data was entered into SPSS version 23; univariate and multivariate logistic regression models were used to identify the association between the variables. A P-value <0 .05 was considered statistically significant at 95% CI. Results: Out of 409 children paired with their mothers, 77.3% completed their immunization. 89% of the caregivers had health cards and 91.2% at least attended ANC. Predictors of complete immunization in this study were; the presence of a health card (AOR: 1.57, P = 0.01), the child aged 16-20 months and above 20-23 months (AOR: 2.34, P = 0.01), and (AOR=4.07 p=0.00) respectively, ANC attendance (AOR: 2.01, P = 0.02) and positive attitude of health workers (AOR: 2.36, P = 0.01). Conclusion: Immunization completion among children aged 12-23 months in Kwania was 77.3%, below the national target of 90%. The child’s age, health cards, ANC attendance, and positive attitudes of health workers were associated with immunization completion. Therefore, the district stakeholders should mobilize the community to improve ANC attendance, provide health cards during vaccination, and innovate other strategic interventions to address adherence to immunization completion.
Factors Affecting Male Partner Involvement in MCH Among Families in Humanitarian Settings. A case Study of Imvepi Refugee Camp
(2024-04-06) Allen Namazzi
A study on “Factors Affecting Male Partner Involvement in MCH among Families in Humanitarian Settings: a case study of Imvepi refugee camp”. It aimed at addressing the following objectives: i) To establish the level of male partner involvement in maternal and newborn health among families in Imvepi refugee settlement, ii) To identify the perceived facilitators/enablers of male partner involvement in maternal and newborn health among South Sudanese in Imvepi refugee settlement, and iii) To establish the perceived barriers that hinder male partners from actively participating in maternal and newborn health. The study used a descriptive cross-sectional community-based survey, that employed both qualitative and quantitative data collection methods. Data was collected through one-on-one interviews, Focus Group Discussions and Key Informant interviews using questionnaires and semi-structured interview schedules with a response rate of 97.6%. Stratified random sampling, Simple random sampling and Purposive sampling techniques were used accordingly to sample respondents. Qualitative data was transcribed verbatim in a local language and then translated into English language. However, quantitative data was analyzed using Statistical Package for Social Scientists version 20.0 into frequencies and percentages. It was noted that men in humanitarian settings were more involved than their counterparts due to increased knowledge of obstetric and newborn dangers signs among men as well as accessibility of healthcare facilities. On the contrary, men were still hindered by financial constraints and cultural connotations surrounding childbirth. In the quest to reduce preventable maternal and infant deaths coupled with the influx of refugees, there is need for governments to reduce out of pocket expenditures associated with healthcare services and invest in sensitizing communities on the critical role played by all stakeholders.
The Determinants of Utilisation of Antenatal Care Services During the First Trimester of Pregnancy. A Study of Adolesent Mothers Attending Gulu Regional Referral Hospital
(2024-04-05) Jane Tolit Akullu
Adolescents who receive antenatal care (ANC) have the opportunity to recognize and react to the warning signs and symptoms of obstetric issues. One of the most important factors in determining a safe birth and positive birth outcomes is the use of enough ANC. The goal of this study was to determine the factors that affect utilization of ANC services among adolescents at the Gulu Regional Referral Hospital during the first trimester. The study used an analytical cross-sectional design with mixed method approach. The study's participants were 402 teenagers (10-19 years old) chosen at random from the ANC clinic. The researcher administered a questionnaire and performed six in-depth interviews. Descriptive and inferential statistics were used to examine the quantitative data that had been collected. Codification and themes were used for qualitative data. The utilization of ANC in first trimester was at 43.3%. Age (aOR:0.6, 95% CI: 0.41-0.94, p=0.025), being separated (aOR:0.4, 95% CI: 0.23-0.75, p=0.006), being single (aOR:0.2, 95% CI: 0.12-0.33, p =0.001), having attained tertiary level of education (aOR:12.2, 95% CI: 3.18-45.1, p =0.001), living with little information on the timing of ANC, lack of autonomy, lack of confidentiality, and delays at the clinic severely impacted the utilization of ANC in first trimester. In conclusion, raising ANC utilization is very important. Intervention for this include giving adolescents the right instructions, moving or setting up a clinic just for teenagers, improving time management, and hiring more midwives.
Describe the Knowledge and Attitude on the Use of International Guidelines for Management of Patients with Heart Failure Among Nurses at the Uganda Heart Institute, Mulago Hospital.
(2024-03-25) Atifa Munanda
Background and aim: Heart failure is a raising public health issue globally. In Uganda HF affects more than 15 % Ugandans annually, and results to increased hospital length of stay, frequent re-hospitalizations, increase hospital costs and premature deaths among those affected. The aim of study is to describe the knowledge and attitude on the use of international guidelines for managing HF among nurses at the Uganda Heart Institute. Methods: The study employed descriptive cross-Sectional study design of quantitative approach of data collection. The research was conducted on 72 nurses who have worked for more than six months in Uganda heart institute. The questionnaire consisted of 30 questions that assessed knowledge and attitude of nurses on the use of international guidelines. The study questionnaire was conducted on the month of June 2023 to July 2023. Results: A total of 72 nurses participated in this study. Average age was 36.7 years with minimum age 27 and maximum age 58 years. 67% of the respondents were below 40 years. Overall, 46.9% of the respondents had good knowledge about management of heart failure using international guidelines. Among the 72 respondents 48(66.7%) had positive attitude towards heart failure management (M = 3.8, SD= 3.3), male had nearly equal attitude compared to female (70.0% vs. 68.7%), participants who had an experience of more than 20 years had a better attitude compared to all categories of experience. Discussions and conclusion: participants had a good knowledge compared to the results from other studies. The knowledge was associated with knowledge years of experience and some forms of specialization. The results showed good attitude which was similar to other studies. Increasing awareness on the use of international guidelines might further improve knowledge.
Effect of Clinical Coaching on the Health Workers’ Knowledge, Attitudes, and Practice Towards the Use of the Patient Health Questionnare-9 Tool in HIV Care at Atiak HCIV in Amuru District, Northern Uganda
(2024-04-10) Douglas Tonny Otim
Abstract Background: Worldwide depression is a concern, especially in people living with HIV. In low- and middle-income countries, its identification continues to be difficult in lower-level healthcare facilities. Specific assessment tools for depression such as Patient Health Questionnare-9 (PHQ-9) are accessible tools that can be implemented to support and improve detection in clinical settings. Health workers in lower-level facilities are not trained to use the PHQ-9 tool, and yet they are in a better position to screen and improve depression detection. Addressing healthcare workers' knowledge, attitudes, and practices using a clinical coaching strategy can increase the efficacy of the PHQ-9 tool. This study aimed to analyze the effect of clinical coaching on the knowledge, attitude, and practices of health workers towards the use of the PHQ-9 assessment tool in an HCIV in Northern Uganda. Method: A one-group pretest-posttest cross-sectional study that employed consecutive sampling was used among 34 health workers. A 5-hour clinical coaching interventions were implemented, and a structured self-administered questionnaire was used to collect data pre- and post-interventions. Descriptive statistics and the significance of the observed difference were assessed with SPSS version 22. Result: There was a significant difference before (M=70.8, SD=3.3) and after (M=90.6, SD=2.6) the coaching intervention on knowledge, t(33) =11.4, p= <0.001, a significant improvement in the scores for before (M= 3.32, SD=0.42) and after (M=3.58, SD=0.31) clinical coaching intervention in attitude; t(9) = -4.77, p = 0.001, and a significant improvement in the optimal practice scores from the baseline (58.8%) and after clinical coaching intervention (85.3%), p = 0.023. Conclusion: Generally there was a noticeable improvement in the knowledge, attitude, and practices of health workers regarding the use of the PHQ-9 tool after clinical coaching intervention. Keywords: Knowledge, attitude, practices, clinical coaching, PHQ-9, and depression screening.