UCU Digital Institutional Repository(UCUDIR)

Welcome to the Uganda Christian University Digital Institutional Repositoy (UCUDIR). This is the University's official Institutional Repository. It aims to collect, preserve and showcase the intellectual output of staff and students of UCU. This growing collection of research includes peer-reviewed articles, book chapters, working papers, theses, and more.

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Stigma, HIV/AIDS treatment seeking behavior among youth living with HIV in Kampala city, Uganda
(Makerere University, 2024-01) Kiwanuka, Anthony
This study sought to discover to what extent stigma affects HIV and AIDS treatment-seeking behavior among youths aged 18-24 in Kampala city. It also examines how anticipated stigma and non- disclosure of HIV status affects health-seeking behavior, and the experiences of living with HIV and AIDS. The study employed qualitative approaches involving purposive selection of study participants who included youths living with HIV. Data was collected through in-depth interviews, Focus Group Discussions, and Key Informant Interviews. It was analyzed using thematic and content methods that were phenomenological. This study was guided by theories of stigma including Goffman and Deacon’s sustainable theory of health – related stigma as well as cognitive behavioral theory and coping. All the youths in this study suffered self-stigma the first time they were diagnosed with HIV. They further felt other forms of stigma namely: internal, social, and discrimination. Being HIV positive was associated with punishment for bad behavior. Apportioning blame to HIV positive youths as self-inflicted by the community was common, thus, affecting youths' urge to seek treatment. Youths’ fear of rejection and discrimination pervaded all aspects and their lives; from home to clinics, and community. Seeking treatment was not a common practice among HIV positive youths. Fear of rejection, lack of disclosure, denial and being asymptomatic, belief in witchcraft and other spiritual beliefs were key barriers to seeking treatment. This study highlights that the youth felt most stigmatized in comparison to other groups. Interactions and negative experiences in government healthcare settings contributed to a reduced engagement around seeking healthcare. To combat stigma and discrimination, interventions must focus on the individual, environment and policy levels. What is needed now is the political will and resources to support and scale up stigma reduction activities through health care settings in Uganda, to engage youth into empowerment groups of self determination and social change, work with social workers’ organizations and use law to advance legal protection. The key recommendations from this research include the empowerment of the stigmatized group, i.e. the YLWHA, as well as their involvement in the design and implementation of prevention programs. Furthermore the focus of health education for behavior change communication strategies are family members or those with significant relationships to YLWHA, and health care providers, who were the major groups found to discriminate against PLWHA.
Knowledge, attitudes and perceptions of secondary school teenagers towards HIV transmission and prevention in rural and urban areas of central Uganda
(Scientific Research Publishing, 2016-07) Rukundo, Annamaria; Muwonge, Mathias M.; Mugisha, Danny; Aturwanaho, Dickens; Kasangaki, Arabat; Bbosa, Godfrey S.
HIV/AIDS has remained a challenge in Uganda among adolescent despite the ABC strategy used globally to prevent HIV infection. The study assessed the knowledge, attitudes and perceptions of secondary school teenagers towards HIV transmission and prevention in rural and urban schools of central Uganda. A cross sectional study using self-administered questionnaires and structured interviews was used to collect data from adolescents in secondary schools in Kampala and Buikwe districts. Eight schools were randomly selected with 4 schools in each district. A total of 245 students from schools were recruited in the study with 120 and 125 students from urban Kampala and rural Buikwe district schools respectively. Data were analyzed using SPSS version 11. The results were expressed as percentages in a 2 × 2 tables. The mean age of the participants was 15.9 ± 2.5 years. Results showed that 95.1% participants had knowledge on HIV/AIDS in both urban and rural schools and 27.4% knew all the modes of HIV transmission. About 83.7% knew the ABC strategy for HIV prevention and 37.6% would talk about HIV/AIDS mainly with friends. For HIV cure, 62.0% of study participants reported non-cure and 24.9% were not sure. The remaining 13.1% of the study participants in both urban and rural schools reported that HIV can be cured. And the modes of curing HIV that were mentioned by participants included spiritual healing, transmitting it to others through sexual intercourse and that antiretroviral (ARVs) drugs can cure it as well as that it can be cured abroad. About 65.7% of participants reported recognition of one with HIV/ AIDS and by having red lips, being sickly; weight loss, skin rash and being very rich were mentioned. About 39.2% of the study participants mentioned that they cannot get infected with HIV and can’t contract HIV at all and 18.4% believed that chances of getting HIV infection were high. On perception and attitude on condoms and their use, participants reported that it is a sign of mistrust, reduces sexual pleasures and they are embarrassing to buy. Majority of the participants in both urban and rural schools had some knowledge on HIV/AIDS and the ABC strategy for HIV prevention. However, there was a knowledge gap on the various modes of HIV transmission and prevention. There was misconception of the participants on HIV/AIDS cure, condom use and on the chances of contracting HIV. About the source of HIV/AIDS information, majority of the participants were getting information on HIV/AIDS from friends of which some information was misleading. This false information could be the reason for the increased HIV prevalence reported among the adolescents in the schools. Generally, participants had some knowledge on HIV/AIDS though they had knowledge gap on HIV transmission and prevention.
Prevalence and Factors Associated with Dental Caries Among Children and Adults in Selected Districts in Uganda
(African Health Sciences, 2015-12) Kutesa, Annet; Kasangaki, Arabat; Nkamba, Moses; Muwazi, Louis; Okullo, Isaac; Rwenyonyi, Charles Mugisha
Objective: The aim was to determine the prevalence and factors associated with dental caries among adults and children in seven districts of Uganda. Methods: Participants aged 11-13 (n=1230) and 35-44 years (n=648) were randomly selected from urban and rural areas of Gulu, Soroti, Jinja, Masaka, Kabale, Kabarole and Hoima districts. They were examined by 4 trained and calibrated dentists for dental caries using Decayed, Missing and Filled teeth index as described by World Health Organisation. Results: Overall mean DMFT score was 0.73 for children and 4.71 for adults. Generally, there was a higher mean DMFT score in the rural (2.19) compared to urban areas (1.97). In all the districts, except Hoima, there was a higher mean DMFT score of children in rural compared to urban. In adults, similar trend was mainly registered in Masaka, Hoima and Gulu dis tricts. Most participants (79.9%, n=1309) occasionally ate sugared snacks. Overall, 95% (n=1795) of the participants cleaned their teeth with plastic tooth brushes (71.7%) and chewing sticks (8.3%). Conclusion: Although the severity of dental caries was low, the disease was widespread in the study population. A high proportion of participants reported consumption of sugared snacks and drinks, which calls for oral health education.
Seasonality of Burkitt's lymphoma in Uganda
(Indian Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Pathology, 2014-09) Muwazi, Louis; Rwenyonyi, Charles Mugisha; Kutesa, Annet; Kasangaki, Arabat; Kamulegeya, Adriane
Background/Aims: Burkitt’s lymphoma is the most common childhood oral maxillofacial tumor in Africa and some studies have reported seasonal variation. Materials and Methods: All Burkitt’s cases diagnosed from 1969 to 2006, from all over Uganda, at the Makerere University’s Department of Pathology, were analyzed, to determine seasonal variation. This was done by evaluation of monthly and rainy versus dry season prevalence. Statistical analysis: The Wilcoxon test was used in both cases, to assess the statistical significance of differences in the diagnostic rates of Burkitt’s lymphoma, in comparison to nonspecific chronic inflammation, using the total as the denominator. Yearly variation in prevalence was examined by a Chi‑square test for linear trend. Mann‑Whitney tests were done to compare the climatic regions. Multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA) was used to test for differences when gender, seasons and climatic regions were factored in. Results: Although monthly frequencies varied considerably over the period, none of the differences were statistically significant (Pearson’s 15.199, degrees of freedom df = 11, P = 0.174). Likewise, there was no statistically significant difference in the total number of Burkitt’s and nonspecific chronic inflammation biopsies handled at the Department during the rainy and dry seasons. Conclusion: Although the 38‑year period gave us sufficient numbers to use the Edward’s method for seasonality, it also meant that a lot of seasonal changes that occurred during the period were not taken into consideration. We hence feel that a review of this data with weather experts, so as to group the biopsies into accurate rainfall and dry patterns, would yield a more authoritative publication.
Task shifting in health service delivery from a decision and policy makers’ perspective: a case of Uganda
(BMC, 2018) Baine, Sebastian Olikira; Kasangaki, Arabat; Baine, Euzobia Margaret Mugisha
Background: Documented evidence shows that task shifting has been practiced in Uganda to bridge the gaps in the health workers’ numbers since 1918. The objectives of this study were to provide a synthesis of the available evidence on task shifting in Uganda; to establish levels of understanding, perceptions on task shifting and acceptability from the decision and policy makers’ perspective; and to provide recommendations on the implications of task shifting for the health of the population in Ugandan and human resource management policy. Methods: This was a qualitative study. Data collection involved review of published and unpublished literature, key informant interviews and group discussion for stakeholders in policy and decision making positions. Data was analyzed by thematic content analysis (ethical clearance number: SS 2444). Results: Task shifting was implemented with minimal compliance to the WHO recommendations and guidelines. Uganda does not have a national policy and guidelines on task shifting. Task shifting was unacceptable to majority of policy and decision makers mainly because less-skilled health workers were perceived to be incompetent due to cases of failed minor surgery, inappropriate medicine use, overwork, and inadequate support supervision. Conclusions: Task shifting has been implemented in Uganda for a long time without policy guidance and regulation. Policy makers were not in support of task shifting because it was perceived to put patients at risk of drug abuse, development of drug resistance, and surgical complications. Evidence showed the presence of unemployed higher-skilled health workers in Uganda. They could not be absorbed into public service because of the low wage bill and lack of political commitment to do so. Less-skilled health workers were remarked to be incompetent and already overworked; yet, the support supervision and continuous medical education systems were not well resourced and effective. Hiring the existing unemployed higher-skilled health workers, fully implementing the human resource motivation and retention strategy, and enforcing the bonding policy for Government-sponsored graduates were recommended.
Etiology and pattern of mandibular fractures among patients attending oral and maxillofacial surgery unit in Mulago hospital, Uganda: a cross–sectional study
(SRYAHWA, 2018) Rwenyonyi, Charles Mugisha; Mpiima, Patrick; Kasangaki, Arabat; Nkamba, Eriab
Background: The mandible is one of the most commonly fractured bones of the facial skeleton because of its anatomical prominence. Objective: The objective of the study was to establish the etiological factors and pattern of mandibular fractures among patients (n=73) aged 3 – 55 years attending the Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery Unit of Mulago Hospital. Methods: This was a hospital based cross-sectional study among patients with mandibular fractures who were consecutively recruited after informed consent. The data were collected using a structured questionnaire and clinical oral examination. The collected data were analyzed using Statistical Package for Social Sciences, version 17 for Windows, Chicago, Illinois, USA. Results: There were 73 patients with 107 mandibular fracture sites. Most fractures were caused by road traffic accident (58%) and assault (38%), and especially among pedestrians and passengers. About half of the patients with fractures were aged 21-30 years. The sex ratio of the patients was 7.7 males versus 1 female. About 17% of the patients were under the influence of alcohol during injury. Majority (69.9%) of the injuries occurred in the Kampala Metropolitan area. Single fractures were observed in 55% of the patients and half of them, displaced. About 91% of the patients with multiple fractures were bilateral. Conclusions: The present study indicated that road traffic accidents and assaults were major causes of madibular fractures, particularly among the youths in the studied population. Males were more prone to mandibular fractures.
Appraisal Practices and Employee Performance of an Organisation: A case of Elgon Millers
(2023-11-06) Dorothy Chelangat
This study sought to assess the effect of appraisal practices and employee performance in Elgon Millers. The study objectives were to: establish effect of target setting practices on employee performance, determine effect of evaluation practices on employee performance; examine effect of communication practices on employee performance and to determine the effect of corrective action practices and employee performance. The study population was 170 employees from Elgon Millers Mbale. The study employed simple random sampling techniques in coming up with a sample size of 118 respondents. The primary data collection method used was a questionnaire. The collected data was analyzed using descriptive statistics in SPSS version 20. Linear correlation coefficient analysis and multiple regression analysis were also used to determine the effect of the independent variables on dependent variables. The study found that target setting practices were significant in predicting the relationship with employee performance with r = 0. 903**, p value = .000 and β = -0.261 with p-value = 0.000<0.05. The regression coefficient of target setting practices was negative and significant in predicting the employee performance. Further the study found that evaluation practices had a positive and significant relationship with employee performance with r = 0. 976**, p value = .000 and β = 0.941 with a p-value = 0.000<0.05. The regression coefficient of evaluation practices was positive and significant in predicting employee performance. The study further found that communication practices had significant effect in predicting employee performance with p-values less than 0.05 with a p-value of 0.000, r = 0. 934**, and β = -0.309. The regression coefficient of communication practices was negative and significant in predicting employee performance. The study also found that corrective action practices were significant in predicting the relationship with employee performance with r = 0. 913**, p value = .000 and β = 0.640 with p-value = 0.000<0.05. The regression coefficient of corrective action practices was positive and significant in predicting the employee performance. The study recommends that that Elgon Millers should put more emphasis on target setting practices by trying as much as possible to involve the employees in the target setting process, Elgon Millers should find a way to actually incorporate their views in the final target document. The management of Elgon Millers should continue to promote Evaluation practices inform of peer evaluation reviews in order to ensure objectivity throughout the appraisal process. The study additionally recommends that the Management of Elgon Millers should also put much more emphasis on communication practices by providing an acceptable means by which the employees can raise their grievances as concerns. Also the study recommends that Elgon Millers should implement a main corrective action towards non-performance
Corporate Governance and Organisational Performance in Civil Societies in Kapchorwa Municipality: A case of Kapchorwa Civil Society Organization Alliance
(Uganda Christian University, 2023-11-03) Eunice Chebet
In Uganda, Civil Society Organizations (CSOs) play a central role on both service delivery and development of democracy while also contributing to achieving equality, justice and poverty reduction. Therefore, they need to have good corporate governance structures to efficiently play their roles in society. This research study sought to examine the effect of corporate governance on organizational performance in civil societies in Kapchorwa municipality using Kapchorwa Civil Society Alliance (KASCOA) as a case. The study sought to address three specific objectives; (1) to determine the effect of board structure on organizational performance of KACSOA in Kapchorwa district; (2) to analyze the effect of board committees on organizational performance of KACSOA; (3) to assess the effect of board competency on organizational performance of KACSOA. A cross sectional design was adopted with a sample of 86 respondents comprising of staff of KASCOA who were chosen through purposive and simple random sampling methods. Primary quantitative and qualitative data was collected from the respondents using self-administered structured questionnaires and personal interviews. Secondary data was obtained from existing related literature including annual reports from KACSOA. Results from the study indicated that all the three variables were statistically significant at 5 percent level of significance. Board committee had the highest positive and significant effect on performance of KASCOA (Beta= 0.975, P=0.000), followed by board competency (Beta= 0.968, P=0.000), and board structure had the lowest significant effect on organizational performance (Beta= 0.916, P=0.000). Drawing from the findings and conclusions, there is need for KACSOA to increase budget compliance, improve its board structure through increasing diversity especially in terms of gender, and to increase the representation of all organization’s stakeholders on the board in order to increase their satisfaction. It is further recommended that KACSOA should form more competent boards that maintain high board and committee accountability, and to monitor the human resource management. Lastly, there is need for the board to efficiently perform its roles and make regular reviews on its own performance in order to boost board competency, thus improved corporate governance and hence a better organizational performance.
Organisational Culture and Employee Performance in Institutions of Higher Learning in Eastern Region: A case of Uganda Christian University, Mbale University College
(2023-10-27) Joseph Bagandanswa Kateregga
The study investigated the influence of organizational culture on employee performance for teaching staff at Uganda Christian University, Mbale University College. It was guided by three research objectives and they included: To examine the influence of shared values on employee performance for teaching staff at Uganda Christian University, Mbale University College. To assess the influence of university mission on employee performance for teaching staff at Uganda Christian University, Mbale University College. To establish the influence of university goal on employee performance for teaching staff at Uganda Christian University, Uganda University College. Descriptive research design involving qualitative and quantitative approaches were used. A sample of 74 respondents was determined by use of the Krejcie and Morgan table approach The sample size of 74 was determined using Krejcie and Morgan (1970) from a study population of 91 respondents. Data was analysed using a mixed approach. The study found that shared values had a significant effect on employee performance for teaching staff at Uganda Christian University, Uganda University College with r squared of 7.4%. University mission, on the other hand, had a significant effect on employee performance for teaching staff at Uganda Christian University, Uganda University College with r squared of 17.8%. University goal was also found to be a significant determinant of performance, accounting for 32.2% (r square=.322) of employee performance. Based on these findings, it is recommended that the university should invest in developing and promoting shared values and university mission among its teaching staff. This could be achieved through training and communication strategies that promote these values and mission. The study also suggests that further research should be conducted to explore the potential impact of other factors such as leadership, work environment, and employee motivation on the performance of teaching staff in Uganda Christian University.
Lived Experiences of Seeking Care for Infertility Among Women at Two Selected Fertility Centers in Kampala District
(Uganda Christrian University, 2023-09) Jude C. Onwueme
Infertility is a complex challenge and a medical condition which affects many individuals globally. It affects both males and females in diverse proportions informing a plethora of unpleasant experiences which inflicts pains. In most cultures the world over, especially in Sub-Saharan Africa, women bear the burden of “involuntary childlessness”, which over 48million couples around the globe are faced with. Women living with infertility are constrained to prove their womanhood through motherhood, thus informing their quest for treatment even from a wide range of unqualified medics and unheralded sources. The quest to achieve conception through treatment, presents with physical, social, psychological, spiritual and financial challenges. This study explored the perceptions about infertility which the women seeking treatment had, their perceptions of the causes of infertility and adjoining risk factors, the challenges they face as it relates to the cost of treatment and the coping mechanisms (strategies) they employed while undergoing treatment, at two fertility centres in Kampala district. In-depth interviews were conducted with 20 women seeking treatment for infertility, selected and recruited using purposive sampling method (in which the participants were randomly picked). Data generated from the study showed that most women seeking treatment for infertility had limited knowledge about infertility and its causes. Also, the cost of treatment of infertility was a burden to most women thus adversely influencing accessibility of treatment and completion of treatment. It was also observed that women employed different mechanisms in their bid to cope with the treatment. Therefore, effective dissemination of information on infertility and its causes, would ameliorate challenges faced. Financial interventions through health insurance schemes are also needed in order to present women seeking treatment with the opportunity of achieving conception. Concerted efforts should also be made by fertility treatment providers and care givers, towards assisting women seeking treatment in coping effectively.