UCU Digital Institutional Repository(UCUDIR)

Welcome to the Uganda Christian University Digital Institutional Repositoy (UCUDIR). This is the University's official Institutional Repository. It aims to collect, preserve and showcase the intellectual output of staff and students of UCU. This growing collection of research includes peer-reviewed articles, book chapters, working papers, theses, and more.

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Recent Submissions

Land Uses Impacts on Spatial and Temporal Water Quality Variations within Kinawataka Wetland Uganda
(2024-02-28) Sharon Mirial Okonga
Uganda’s urban wetlands like Kinawataka wetland are increasing affected by effluent discharge from different industrial establishments which poses a great threat to their different components and surrounding dependant human communities. The wetland is a vital ecosystem that provides livelihood opportunities and acts as a watershed that removes nutrient loads from water. However, land use changes and wetland degradation have negatively impacted the quality of water flowing in and out of the wetland. This study summarizes the impacts of land use on spatial and temporal water quality variations within Kinawataka Wetland in Uganda. This study therefore assessed the impacts of pollution loading on water quality within Kinawataka wetland in Kampala district. The study primarily focused on mapping land use changes, geographical and temporal fluctuations in physico-chemical parameters, heavy metals, and nutrient concentrations in water along Kinawataka Wetland in order to provide baseline data for its future conservation and sustainable usage. This study undertook a quantitative research approach with data collected from four purposively selected sites within Kinawataka wetland. In addition to Land use mapping around purposively selected sites, some parameters were measured in-situ whereas others were analysed in the Laboratory. The study findings in Figure 3 illustrate land use changes in Kinawataka wetland (2010-2020): significant growth in built-up areas, a fluctuating pattern for agricultural land, and consistent declines in forested areas and papyrus coverage. Water quality analysis was performed according to Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Wastewater. The study findings revealed that apart from pH, other physico-chemical parameters of water significantly differed (P < 0.05) at different sites within Kinawataka wetland and over study seasons. Heavy metal concentrations also varied among sites with sites closer to point source industrial effluent discharge such as site 2 having higher concentrations of heavy metals compared to sites distant from industrial establishments such as site 1, 6 and 3. Further, Nutrient concentrations in water varied differently among sites along Kinawataka wetland with each site irrespective of location having a particular nutrient in relatively higher concentration than that at other sites. Further research was recommended to ascertain the implications of the effluent discharge on the biological properties and diversity of Kinawataka wetland components in general.
Predominant Headteacher Leadership Styles and Quality Of Teaching in Government Aided Secondary Schools in Nabilatuk District
(2024-02-08) Bosco Okello
The study aimed at establishing the influence of the dominant head-teacher leadership styles and quality of teaching in the government aided secondary schools in Nabilatuk District. The study objectives included; to investigate the extent to which autocratic leadership style influence on quality of teaching in selected government-aided secondary schools, to investigate the extent to which democratic leadership style influence on quality of teaching in selected government-aided secondary schools, and to establish the influence of laissez faire leadership style on quality of teaching in selected government aided secondary schools. A cross-sectional research design was employed, with both qualitative and quantitative approaches. The research sample comprised of purposively selected respondents, namely: four (4) head teachers, four (4) Deputy Head teachers, and two (2) District Inspectors of School. Seventy six (76) teachers were also randomly selected for the study. Data were collected using questionnaires and interviews and stored by SPSS software. Analysis of the quantitative data was done with Pearson correlation technique while the qualitative data from interviews were thematically scrutinised to evaluate the content. Study findings revealed that there is a moderately high significant positive effect of autocratic leadership style on quality of teaching [(r=.686, p=.000); coefficient of determination (R2=0.471)]; denoting a 47.1 % positive variation in quality of teaching due to the application of autocratic leadership style. Democratic leadership style was also found to be a moderately significant positive influencer of quality of teaching [(r=.589, p=.000); (R2=0.346)]; implying that any changes in democratic leadership style can shift quality of teaching by about 34.6%. It was further found out that there is a low positive significant influence of laissez faire leadership on quality of teaching [r=0.342, p=0.000; regression coeff 0.117]; meaning that any changes in laissez-Faire leadership style would influence teaching quality by 11.7% chance deviation in quality of teaching. Recommendation; while autocratic leadership (due to its immense focus of organisational mission and goals) it is thus recommended that it shouldn’t be applied singularly as it also bears several weaknesses - reducing the employee to a machine status with scanty psychological warmth. By this very fact, other styles (democratic and laissez faire) that treat man as a living human being must be used wisely and according to the obtaining situations.
Assessment of Causes of Occupational Accidents Among Workers at Storeyed Commercial Building Construction Sites in Wakiso District, Uganda
(Uganda Christian University, 2024-03-19) Doreen Birungi
Occupational Hazards Accidents on commercial storeyed construction sites
Potential of Alum Sludge from Katosi Drinking Water Treatment Plant for Reduction of Phosphorus in Wastewater Treatment Plant Effluent in Uganda
(2024-02-29) Sharon Anneys Naayo
In response to the global surge in wastewater production due to population growth and economic development, improving wastewater treatment is crucial. The presence of excess nutrients, particularly phosphorus (P), in wastewater effluent poses a significant threat of eutrophication. This study, therefore, set out to assess the potential of reusing alum sludge from the Katosi Drinking Water Treatment Plant (KDWTP) as a phosphorus adsorbent in wastewater effluent, aiming at finding a more sustainable and effective alum sludge disposal solution while reducing environmental and health risks associated with P-contamination. Effluent samples were analysed for total phosphorus, temperature, pH, and turbidity. Alum sludge was characterized using a variety of methods (pH, moisture content, FTIR, XRF, and SEM analyses). Phosphorus reduction was evaluated using alum sludge granules (ASG) prepared by binding oven-dried alum sludge with Carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) in batch experiments. The effect of varying contact time and ASG masses on phosphorus reduction was investigated. The adsorption behaviour was described by the Langmuir and Freundlich models, and statistical tests were used to determine model suitability and group differences. The alum sludge exhibited favourable characteristics for phosphorus adsorption, with a maximum adsorption capacity of 0.3 mg/g. The highest reduction, 86 %, was achieved at 24 hours of contact at an ASG mass of 9 g. The Langmuir isotherm model, with a coefficient of determination, R², of 0.743, provided the best fit for total phosphorus adsorption onto ASG, demonstrating the potential of reusing alum sludge from the Katosi Drinking Water Treatment Plant for phosphorus reduction in wastewater effluent in Uganda. Further field testing, pilot studies, and exploration of granulation techniques are recommended for real-world applications.
Centrality of Minority Languages in Development Programs: Analysis of how Aliba, Gimara and Reli Languages of North Western Uganda can be Considered Central in Language Development Programs
(2023-10-24) Reuben Ngosa Kabwe
This study analyzed why Aliba, Gimara, and Reli languages have not been considered central in language development programs. The central research question was “Why are Aliba, Gimara and Reli languages not considered central in the language development programs? The specific objectives of the study were; To find out how the useability; survival, distinctiveness; and representation of the Aliba, Gimara and Reli ethnic groups contribute to their consideration in languages development programs. The research adopted an action research design using a qualitative research design, based on descriptive approaches. A sample of 218 respondents were considered for the study although data was collected from 195 respondents selected using Morgan and Kreigie sampling tables. Findings on useability showed that Aliba, Gimara and Reli are spoken in their communities, that is in their homes, worship places, markets, and other public places. However, these minority languages have been suppressed and submerged by the prestige languages in the region even when they are being used. These languages risk extinction if not considered central in language development programs. On survival, it was clearly noted by the researcher that most respondents from Aliba, Gimara and Reli indicated that they had never seen or read anything written in their own languages. For many years Aliba, Gimara and Reli people have not received the necessary help to intentionally engage in activities that grow their language and culture.On distinctiveness, findings showed that Aliba, Gimara and Reli are distinct languages that need to be considered as such and not as minor or dialects to bigger languages. Alibas are proud to identify themselves as such and therefore speak Aliba at home and outside of their homes. This is the same with Gimara and Reli as shown in the study findings. On representations, it was found that Reli, Aliba and Gimara are not adequately represented on language development platforms because they are usually subdued and overshadowed by the majority languages that make them feel inferior. At the national level they are not yet scheduled in the constitution as indigenous languages in Uganda. On use ability the study recommends that development partners should initiate possible programs to develop orthographies which will enable these languages to come up with alphabets of their languages and also develop language writing systems. On distinctiveness, the study recommends that an initiative be taken to submit a formal request to the government seeking to be officially recognized as distinct indigenous languages on the national language identification list. On survival, the study recommends that the Church and development partners should begin efforts to translate scripture in these languages to enable the people to read and worship God freely in their indigenous languages. On representation, the study recommends that the different forums in which Aliba, Gimara and Reli people are found should be given adequate representation to articulate their needs as opposed to depending on views from majority languages who do not support their inclusion in language development.
Role Conflict and Burnout of Administrators in Higher Education Institutions in Uganda
(2023-10-18) Faith Mbabazi
Based on the role conflict theory, the study examined role conflict and job burnout of Higher Educational Institutions administrators in Uganda. Therefore, the study sought to fill the gap since most studies on burnout that have been conducted in universities are about Teaching staff not on administrators. The study also aimed at examining the link between role conflict and burnout among administrators since they interact with students, staff and the public. The specific objectives of the study included the following: To establish the effect of role conflict on burnout of academic administrators. To examine the effect of role conflict on burnout of administrators. To examine the institutional differences on influence of role conflict and burnout among Higher Education administrators. To assess the role conflict and burnout experiences among university administrators. The study employed a mixed methods research specifically explanatory sequential approach. A burnout inventory and interview tools were administered to respondents and participants. Findings revealed the following: Role Conflict led to burnout especially on academic administrators with length of service having a significant relation with emotional exhaustion. Role conflict led to burnout with Time based construct, Age and Gender of respondents having significant relationship with emotion exhaustion. On institutional levels administrators from both Universities experienced role conflict and burnout The qualitative findings indicated quite a number of experiences that the participants were going through which showed the presence of role conflict and burnout. The study concluded that role conflict is a predictor of burnout dimensions most especially emotional exhaustion of academic and administrators across institutions. Higher education administrators should be interested in the mental state of their staff because as earlier noted emotional exhaustion was the most significantly burnout dimension predicted by role conflict. Key Words: Role Conflict, Burnout, Academic Administrators, Administrators Higher Educational Institutions
Events and Generation of Oral Literature: The Murder and Burial of Bishop James Hannington as a Case Study
(2015-05-10) Wankuma Abel Kibbedi
This study focuses on two events, namely the death and burial of Bishop Hannington, in order to help us understand the generation and development of oral narratives. It follows the path that has been cleared by scholars in African Literature like Hofmeyr who combine multiple approaches to the study of Oral Literature, that is, History, Anthropology, and Sociology. It proves that much oral literature can be produced from a single event. The study looks at the generation of oral literature from the death and burial of Bishop James Hannington the first Anglican bishop of the Equatorial Province. The researcher visited the sites of the murder and a place where the bishop’s body was kept for a while before the first burial. He interviewed several informants from whom very insightful information was got. The conclusion is that much oral literature can be generated from an event as here reported and documented in this dissertation.
Shifting Narrative Styles in The Fiction of Timothy Wangusa and Jennifer Nansubuga Makumbi
(2023-10-13) Wankuma Abel Kibbedi
This thesis examines how Timothy Wangusa and Jennifer Nansubuga Makumbi make a shift in the narrative styles in their fictive prose works. It fills a knowledge gap on how Wangusa and Makumbi employ style in a distinguished manner to achieve a significant shift in use of style in their fiction prose works. The research was guided by two study objectives establishing the shift from the traditional Eurocentric styles to more African contemporaneous styles of writing for both authors. They employ autoethnography as a self-cultural style of writing African prose fiction. The study employed a qualitative research design. Research instruments included textual checklists, a close reading of selected primary texts and secondary materials, and interview guides administered to the two authors to determine their respective standpoints on several contemporary theoretical views on creative, compositional assumptions, and parameter and values. The philosophical underpinnings of the Russian literary theorist, Mikhail Bakhtin, and American decolonization theorist, Mary Louise Pratt, were particularly helpful, especially Bakhtin’s concepts of Dialogism and Pratt’s theory of The Contact Zone. Heteroglossia and the art of the Contact Zone respectively were used to analytically study the individual styles and styles within the genre to ascertain the shift[s]. The study established that both authors make a significant shift in their style[s] both within the prose fiction and the genre at large. This is done through deploying African orality in all forms while addressing contemporary issues. The study established that the authors were more aware of modern theories of writing and hence their expression in the fictive works is far more contemporaneous in comparison to other writers. The study recommends that since Wangusa and Makumbi adopt new and different styles that are worth exploring by other writers, and that researchers may replicate this study with other writers and their styles.
Stigma, HIV/AIDS treatment seeking behavior among youth living with HIV in Kampala city, Uganda
(Makerere University, 2024-01) Kiwanuka, Anthony
This study sought to discover to what extent stigma affects HIV and AIDS treatment-seeking behavior among youths aged 18-24 in Kampala city. It also examines how anticipated stigma and non- disclosure of HIV status affects health-seeking behavior, and the experiences of living with HIV and AIDS. The study employed qualitative approaches involving purposive selection of study participants who included youths living with HIV. Data was collected through in-depth interviews, Focus Group Discussions, and Key Informant Interviews. It was analyzed using thematic and content methods that were phenomenological. This study was guided by theories of stigma including Goffman and Deacon’s sustainable theory of health – related stigma as well as cognitive behavioral theory and coping. All the youths in this study suffered self-stigma the first time they were diagnosed with HIV. They further felt other forms of stigma namely: internal, social, and discrimination. Being HIV positive was associated with punishment for bad behavior. Apportioning blame to HIV positive youths as self-inflicted by the community was common, thus, affecting youths' urge to seek treatment. Youths’ fear of rejection and discrimination pervaded all aspects and their lives; from home to clinics, and community. Seeking treatment was not a common practice among HIV positive youths. Fear of rejection, lack of disclosure, denial and being asymptomatic, belief in witchcraft and other spiritual beliefs were key barriers to seeking treatment. This study highlights that the youth felt most stigmatized in comparison to other groups. Interactions and negative experiences in government healthcare settings contributed to a reduced engagement around seeking healthcare. To combat stigma and discrimination, interventions must focus on the individual, environment and policy levels. What is needed now is the political will and resources to support and scale up stigma reduction activities through health care settings in Uganda, to engage youth into empowerment groups of self determination and social change, work with social workers’ organizations and use law to advance legal protection. The key recommendations from this research include the empowerment of the stigmatized group, i.e. the YLWHA, as well as their involvement in the design and implementation of prevention programs. Furthermore the focus of health education for behavior change communication strategies are family members or those with significant relationships to YLWHA, and health care providers, who were the major groups found to discriminate against PLWHA.
Knowledge, attitudes and perceptions of secondary school teenagers towards HIV transmission and prevention in rural and urban areas of central Uganda
(Scientific Research Publishing, 2016-07) Rukundo, Annamaria; Muwonge, Mathias M.; Mugisha, Danny; Aturwanaho, Dickens; Kasangaki, Arabat; Bbosa, Godfrey S.
HIV/AIDS has remained a challenge in Uganda among adolescent despite the ABC strategy used globally to prevent HIV infection. The study assessed the knowledge, attitudes and perceptions of secondary school teenagers towards HIV transmission and prevention in rural and urban schools of central Uganda. A cross sectional study using self-administered questionnaires and structured interviews was used to collect data from adolescents in secondary schools in Kampala and Buikwe districts. Eight schools were randomly selected with 4 schools in each district. A total of 245 students from schools were recruited in the study with 120 and 125 students from urban Kampala and rural Buikwe district schools respectively. Data were analyzed using SPSS version 11. The results were expressed as percentages in a 2 × 2 tables. The mean age of the participants was 15.9 ± 2.5 years. Results showed that 95.1% participants had knowledge on HIV/AIDS in both urban and rural schools and 27.4% knew all the modes of HIV transmission. About 83.7% knew the ABC strategy for HIV prevention and 37.6% would talk about HIV/AIDS mainly with friends. For HIV cure, 62.0% of study participants reported non-cure and 24.9% were not sure. The remaining 13.1% of the study participants in both urban and rural schools reported that HIV can be cured. And the modes of curing HIV that were mentioned by participants included spiritual healing, transmitting it to others through sexual intercourse and that antiretroviral (ARVs) drugs can cure it as well as that it can be cured abroad. About 65.7% of participants reported recognition of one with HIV/ AIDS and by having red lips, being sickly; weight loss, skin rash and being very rich were mentioned. About 39.2% of the study participants mentioned that they cannot get infected with HIV and can’t contract HIV at all and 18.4% believed that chances of getting HIV infection were high. On perception and attitude on condoms and their use, participants reported that it is a sign of mistrust, reduces sexual pleasures and they are embarrassing to buy. Majority of the participants in both urban and rural schools had some knowledge on HIV/AIDS and the ABC strategy for HIV prevention. However, there was a knowledge gap on the various modes of HIV transmission and prevention. There was misconception of the participants on HIV/AIDS cure, condom use and on the chances of contracting HIV. About the source of HIV/AIDS information, majority of the participants were getting information on HIV/AIDS from friends of which some information was misleading. This false information could be the reason for the increased HIV prevalence reported among the adolescents in the schools. Generally, participants had some knowledge on HIV/AIDS though they had knowledge gap on HIV transmission and prevention.