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- ItemObservations on the Nile monitor lizard (Varanus niloticus, L.) in Queen Elizabeth National Park, Uganda(African Journal of Ecology, 1983) Edroma, E. L.; Ssali, William MamiimaThe daily activity, feeding habits and intra- and interspecific relationships of the monitor lizard Varanus niloticus (L.) were studied from 07.00 to 17.00 h. The lizards basked in the mornings (07.0049.30) and afternoons (14.30-15.10). They are scavengers and predators.
- ItemApproaches to the effective utilization of Haplochromis spp. from Lake Victoria. I. Chemical composition in relation to utilization(Journal of Food Technology, 1984) Ssali, William Mamiima; Hanson, S. W.; Knowles, M. J.There are over 150 species of the cichlid genus Huplochrornis in Lake Victoria constituting a major underexploited food resource. As an aid to the processing of the deepwater stock, chemical composition data were obtained for the whole fish (separated into weight groups) and for the head, viscera, flesh and residual portions separately. Data are reported for lipid content, fatty acid composition, crude protein, true protein, amino acid composition, ash and moisture content.
- ItemTowards a National AIDS-Control Program in Uganda(PubMed Central, 1987-12) Okware, Samuel IkwarasA national AIDS-control program was developed in Uganda to deal with a potentially serious epidemic of the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). A cumulative total of 1, 138 cases of AIDS has been reported in Uganda between 1983-since AIDS was introduced into the country and March 1987. More than 80% of the victims are sexually active persons whereas less than 10% are infants and children younger than 5 years. Virtually no cases or seropositivity is reported in persons between the ages of 5 and 14 years or after the age of 60 years. Most transmission has been through the heterosexual route, and, unlike in the United States, the male-female ratio is 1:1. Heterosexual high-risk behavior is cited as an important mode of transmission. A survey of household contacts showed that despite the closeness, only the sexual partners were seropositive. A five-year plan of action has been developed, and health education is the main thrust. It also includes blood screening, improved sterile procedures, improved surveillance and notification, research and terminal patient care. The plan stresses integration based on primary health care. There are unresolved moral issues of whether or not to tell the truth to an AIDS victim or any healthy seropositive person in developing countries, especially unstable persons. The best approach is to sensitize everyone so that they become guardians of their lives because sexual behavior is an issue of individual responsibility.
- ItemNew trends in library and information fields and the implications for continuing education.(1998-07) Kigongo-Bukenya, I. M. NThis research article lists and describes the major trends in the library and information profession, including: changing environment; agitation from employers, associations, students and users; new technology, transparency with which information is communicated; differentiation in the profession; special groups; internationalization; interdisciplinarianism; and harmonization. Considers the implications of these trends for the achievement of the objectives of continuing education both in general and in the Eastern and Southern Region of Africa.
- ItemQuantitative process evaluation of a community-based HIV/AIDS behavioural intervention in rural Uganda.(2002) Kanyesigye, E.; Kisman, J.; Kamali, A.; Kamulegeya, I.; Basajja, V.; Nakiyingi, J.; Schenk, K.; Whitworth, J.This paper describes the implementation of a large community-based HIV/AIDS behavioural intervention in rural Uganda and presents 4 years' worth of quantitative process data. The intervention involved 560 field-based workers (57% male, 76% subsistence farmers, mean age 35 years), supervised by six central staff. Intervention channels included drama and video shows, Community Educators (CEs), as well as leaflet and condom distribution. Activities focused on one or more of 16 key topics. In total, 392 000 attendances (51% female) were recorded--a mean of over 6 for each of the 64 000 target adults--at 81 000 activities, with CEs attracting 71% of the total attendance; 164 000 leaflets and 242 000 condoms were also distributed. The annual cost of the intervention per target individual was approximately US$1.76. Our voluntary workforce experienced an annual attrition rate of 11%, with 'stable' workers more likely to be older, married or opinion leaders in their community than those who dropped out. We calculate that even a significant increase in the proportion of female field workers would have made little difference either to the sex ratio of attendees or to overall attendance. In spite of some initial resistance to the intervention, particularly in relation to condoms, we have demonstrated that people in rural Africa can accept and actively participate in the dissemination of HIV/AIDS prevention messages throughout their own communities.
- ItemInfection of New- and Old-World Aedes albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae) by the Intracellular Parasite Wolbachia: Implications for Host Mitochondrial DNA Evolution(Journal of Medical Entomology, 2003) Armbruster, Peter; Damsky, William E.; Giordano, Rosanna; Birungi, Josephine; Munstermann, Leonard E.; Conn, And Jan E.Wolbachia are cytoplasmically inherited, endosymbiotic bacteria known to infect a wide variety of arthropods. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) ampliÞcation of the Wolbachia surface protein (wsp) gene was used to assay the infection of geographically disparate populations of Aedes albopictus (Skuse) by Wolbachia. Nine North American, four South American, one Hawaiian, and four Old World populations of A. albopictus were all doubly infected with both the wAlbA and wAlbB strains of Wolbachia.A365-bp region of thewAlbA wsp gene was sequenced from seven geographically disparate host populations, and all sequences were identical. Similarly, a 474-bp region of the wAlbB wsp gene was sequenced from the same populations, and all sequences were identical. These results suggest a role for Wolbachia infection in causing the previously established pattern of low mitochondrial DNA variability, but average nuclear gene diversity, within and among populations of A. albopictus.
- ItemA good death in Uganda: survey of needs for palliative care for terminally ill people in urban areas(2003-07) Kikule, EkiriaObjective To identify the palliative care needs of terminally ill people in Uganda. Design Descriptive cross sectional study. Setting Home care programmes in and around Kampala that look after terminally ill people in their homes. Participants 173 terminally ill patients registered with the home care programmes. Results Most of the participants had either HIV/AIDS or cancer or both; 145 were aged under 50 years, and 107 were women. Three main needs were identified: the control or relief of pain and other symptoms; counselling; and financial assistance for basic needs such as food, shelter, and school fees for their children. The preferred site of care was the home, though all these people lived in urban areas with access to healthcare services within 5 km of their homes. Conclusion A “good death” in a developing country occurs when the dying person is being cared for at home, is free from pain or other distressing symptoms, feels no stigma, is at peace, and has their basic needs met without feeling dependent on others.
- ItemParticipatory planning for the transformation of the Faculty of Medicine into a College of Health Sciences(African Health Sciences, 2003-08) Dodge, Cole P.; Sewankambo, Nelson; Kanyesigye, EdwardThe study is about Participatory planning for the transformation of the Faculty of Medicine into a College of Health Sciences
- ItemAssessment of cassava diversity in Uganda using SSR markers(2004) Kizito, Elizabeth B.; Castelblanco, W.; Omara, J.; Bua, A.; Egwang, T.G.; Fregene, M.; Gullberg, U.The genetic diversity and differentiation of 272 cassava landrace accessions collected in Uganda is assessed in this study. In addition to this, 20 Tanzanian material was included from a previous study of diversity in Tanzania, 20 material from the Ghanaian germplasm bank, 20 material from Guatemala and 18 from holdings at CIAT and IITA to represent the core collection from Latin America. All together 9 groups or samples, based on country of origin, were created to study genetic diversity and differentiation within each country and among countries. Using simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers, variation in allele frequency at many unlinked loci was used to estimate the parameters of genetic diversity and differentiation, and to estimate the strengths of various forces shaping them. SSR data was analyzed by GENSURVEY (Vekemans & Lefebvre,1997), FSTAT 2.9 (Goudet, 1995) and NTSYS-PC(Rohlf, 1993). Results affirm a genetic divergence between African and Latin American accessions. They also show a high genetic diversity and a low differentiation in the Ugandan accession. There is a substantial role played by the cassava mosaic disease (CMD) on cassava genetic constitution in respective districts.
- ItemLaw and Gospel in Hebrews: Some Paradigms for Christianity in Africa(An Evangelical Christian Journal of Contemporary Mission and Research in Africa, 2004) Nyende, PeterThe ‘law’ in the book of Hebrews is seen to relate to Christ in a variety of intriguing ways: almost simultaneously the ‘law’ anticipates, illuminates, is fulfilled and made redundant in Christ- the center of the gospel. This paper will argue that it is possible to conceive of some aspects of Africa’s religious heritage (still a force to reckon with in Africa) as being in the same kind of relationship [to Christ, and in consequence, will also consider the missiological and pastoral implications that emanate from such a conception for the Church in Africa
- ItemWhy bother with Hebrews? An African perspective(The Heythrop Journal, 2005) Nyende, PeterHebrews was [and is] not regarded as sufficiently ‘mainstream’ either in the academic circles or in its ‘market’, the churches, to warrant much attention. Then as now we knew that only the Gospels and Paul were really worth bothering about! In my undergraduate days the rest (Hebrews, James, 1 & 2 Peter, 1, 2, & 3 John, Jude and the Apocalypse) were referred to as ‘the backend’ of the New Testament. But at least then the back-end was an integral part of any reputable university’s basic New Testament syllabus, which cannot be said of today. With the reduction of the Biblical Studies component in most theology degrees, and its concomitant, the reduction in time and content of our syllabuses, Hebrews – along with a number of our New Testament works – has effectively been made redundant, and we are left with a ‘canon within the canon’.
- ItemThe effect of cassava mosaic disease on the genetic diversity of cassava in Uganda(Springer International Publishing, 2005) Kizito, Elizabeth B.; Bua, Anton; Fregene, Martin; Egwang, Thomas; Gullberg, Urban; Westerbergh, AnnaCassava (Manihot esculenta) is a tropical crop that is grown in Africa, Latin America and Southeast Asia. Cassava was introduced from Latin America into West and East Africa at two independent events. In Uganda a serious threat to cassava’s survival is the cassava mosaic disease (CMD). Uganda has had two notable CMD epidemics since the introduction of cassava in the 1850s causing severe losses. SSR markers were used to study the effect of CMD on the genetic diversity in five agro-ecologies in Uganda with high and low incidence of CMD. Surprisingly, high gene diversity was detected. Most of the diversity was found within populations, while the diversity was very small among agro-ecological zones and the high and low CMD incidence areas. The high genetic diversity suggests a mechanism by which diversity is maintained by the active involvement of the Ugandan farmer in continuously testing and adopting new genotypes that will serve their diverse needs. However, in spite of the high genetic diversity we found a loss of rare alleles in areas with high CMD incidence. To study the effect of the introgression history on the gene pool the genetic differentiation between East and West Africa was also studied. Genetic similarities were found between the varieties in Uganda and Tanzania in East Africa and Ghana in West Africa. Thus, there is no evidence for a differentiation of the cassava gene pool into a western and an eastern genetic lineage. However, a possible difference in the genetic constitution of the introduced cassava into East and West Africa may have been diminished by germplasm movement
- ItemDistribution, timing of attack, and oviposition of the banana weevil, Cosmopolites sordidus, on banana crop residues in Uganda(The Netherlands Entomological Society, 2005-06) Masanza, Michael; Gold, C.S.; Huis, A. vanCrop sanitation (removal and chopping of residue corms and pseudostems following plant harvest) has been recommended as a ‘best bet’ means of reducing banana weevil, Cosmopolites sordidus (Germar) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), populations. However, it has been unclear when such practices should be carried out and what types of residues should be destroyed. Therefore, trials were conducted in Uganda to determine C. sordidus distribution, timing of attack, and oviposition on crop residues and growing plants. Assessments were performed in on-station trials on different aged standing and prostrate residues by destructive sampling. Similar data were collected from farmers’ fields maintained at low, moderate, and high levels of sanitation. In the on-station trial, oviposition occurred on up to 120- day-old residues, although most occurred within 30 days of harvest. In a second on-station experiment, oviposition on standing residues was not significantly affected by residue age. By contrast, oviposition on prostrate residues was two times higher on 4-week-old than on 2-week-old residues, while the number of larvae on 8-week-old residues was three times higher than on 2-week-old residues. The number of adults was twice as high on 16-week-old residues as that on 2-week-old residues for both prostrate and standing residues. Farmers’ fields maintained at high sanitation had 50% fewer eggs per residue than farms with low sanitation levels. In general, the number of immatures per residue was 50% higher on banana corms than on pseudostems. Numbers of larvae per residue were three times more abundant at low than at high sanitation levels. Residues in fields with high sanitation supported 50% fewer adults than residues in low sanitation fields. The results suggest that removal and splitting of corms after harvest is effective and practical in destroying immature growth stages of the pest and that such practices should be carried out soon after harvest.
- ItemStandardization of cytokine flow cytometry assays(BioMed Central Ltd., 2005-06-24) Maecker, Holden T.; Rinfret, Aline; D'Souza, Patricia; Darden, Janice; Roig, Eva; Landry, Claire; Hayes, Peter; Birungi, Josephine; Anzala, Omu; Garcia, Miguel; Harari, Alexandre; Frank, Ian; Baydo, Ruth; Baker, Megan; Holbrook, Jennifer; Ottinger, Janet; Lamoreaux, Laurie; Epling, C. Lorrie; Sinclair, Elizabeth; Suni, Maria A.; Punt, Kara; Calarota, Sandra; El-Bahi, Sophia; Alter, Gailet; Maila, Hazel; Kuta, Ellen; Cox, Josephine; Gray, Clive; Altfeld, Marcus; Nougarede, Nolwenn; Boyer, Jean; Tussey, Lynda; Tobery, Timothy; Bredt, Barry; Roederer, Mario; Koup, Richard; Maino, Vernon C.; Weinhold, Kent; Pantaleo, Giuseppe; Gilmour, Jill; Horton, Helen; Sekaly, Rafick P.Background: Cytokine flow cytometry (CFC) or intracellular cytokine staining (ICS) can quantitate antigen-specific T cell responses in settings such as experimental vaccination. Standardization of ICS among laboratories performing vaccine studies would provide a common platform by which to compare the immunogenicity of different vaccine candidates across multiple international organizations conducting clinical trials. As such, a study was carried out among several laboratories involved in HIV clinical trials, to define the inter-lab precision of ICS using various sample types, and using a common protocol for each experiment (see additional files online). Results: Three sample types (activated, fixed, and frozen whole blood; fresh whole blood; and cryopreserved PBMC) were shipped to various sites, where ICS assays using cytomegalovirus (CMV) pp65 peptide mix or control antigens were performed in parallel in 96-well plates. For one experiment, antigens and antibody cocktails were lyophilised into 96-well plates to simplify and standardize the assay setup. Results (CD4+cytokine+ cells and CD8+cytokine+ cells) were determined by each site. Raw data were also sent to a central site for batch analysis with a dynamic gating template. Mean inter-laboratory coefficient of variation (C.V.) ranged from 17–44% depending upon the sample type and analysis method. Cryopreserved peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) yielded lower inter-lab C.V.'s than whole blood. Centralized analysis (using a dynamic gating template) reduced the inter-lab C.V. by 5–20%, depending upon the experiment. The inter-lab C.V. was lowest (18–24%) for samples with a mean of >0.5% IFNγ + T cells, and highest (57–82%) for samples with a mean of <0.1% IFNγ + cells. Conclusion: ICS assays can be performed by multiple laboratories using a common protocol with good inter-laboratory precision, which improves as the frequency of responding cells increases. Cryopreserved PBMC may yield slightly more consistent results than shipped whole blood. Analysis, particularly gating, is a significant source of variability, and can be reduced by centralized analysis and/or use of a standardized dynamic gating template. Use of pre-aliquoted lyophilized reagents for stimulation and staining can provide further standardization to these assays.
- ItemRepeat Voluntary HIV Counseling and Testing (VCT), Sexual Risk Behavior and HIV Incidence in Rakai, Uganda(Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, 2006) Matovu, Joseph K. B.; Gray, Ronald H.; Kiwanuka, Noah; Kigozi, Godfrey; Wabwire-Mangen, Fred; Nalugoda, Fred; Serwadda, David; Sewankambo, Nelson K.; Wawer, Maria J.We examined the effects of repeat Voluntary HIV counseling and testing (VCT) on sexual risk behaviors and HIV incidence in 6,377 initially HIV-negative subjects enrolled in a prospective STD control for HIV prevention trial in rural Rakai district, southwestern Uganda. Sixty-four percent accepted VCT, and of these, 62.2% were first time acceptors while 37.8% were repeat acceptors. Consistent condom use was 5.8% in repeat acceptors, 6.1% in first time acceptors and 5.1% in non-acceptors. A higher proportion of repeat acceptors (15.9%) reported inconsistent condom use compared to first-time acceptors (12%) and non-acceptors (11.7%). Also, a higher proportion of repeat acceptors (18.1%) reported 2+ sexual partners compared to first-time acceptors (14.1%) and non-acceptors (15%). HIV incidence rates were 1.4/100 py (person-years) in repeat acceptors, 1.6/100 py in first time acceptors and 1.6/100 py in non-acceptors. These data suggest a need for intensive risk-reduction counseling interventions targeting HIV-negative repeat VCT acceptors as a special risk group.
- ItemBiologically directed environmental monitoring, fate, and transport of estrogenic endocrine disrupting compounds in water: A review(Elsevier Publications, 2006) Campbell, Chris G.; Borglin, Sharon E.; Green, F. Bailey; Grayson, Allen; Wozei, Eleanor; Stringfellow, William T.Endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs) are contaminants that may be hormonally active at low concentrations and are emerging as a major concern for water quality. Estrogenic EDCs (e-EDCs) are a subclass of EDCs that, when organisms are exposed to them, function as estrogens. Given that there are numerous e-EDCs that can negatively affect humans and wildlife, general screening techniques like biologically based assays (BBAs) may provide major advantages by estimating the total estrogenic effects of many e-EDCs in the environment. These techniques may potentially be adapted for field portable biologically directed sampling and analyses. This article summarizes available BBAs used to measure estrogenic e-EDCs in the environmental samples and also presents results relating to fate and transport of e-EDCs. Estrogenic EDCs appear to be almost ubiquitous in the environment, despite low solubility and high affinity of organic matter. Potential transport mechanisms may include: (1) transport of more soluble precursors, (2) colloid facilitated transport, (3) enhanced solubility through elevated pH, and (4) the formation of micelles by longer-chain ethoxylates. Due to their persistent and ubiquitous nature, source control strategies for e-EDCs may reduce influent concentration to wastewater treatment plants so that the post treatment effluent will decrease concentrations to estrogenically inactive levels. Alternatively if source reduction is not possible, then more testing is needed on tertiary treatment technologies and treatment efficiencies for e-EDCs. There is still a need for research on remediation and restoration approaches for habitats disturbed by elevated e-EDC concentrations.
- ItemDetecting estrogenic activity in water samples with estrogen-sensitive yeast cells using spectrophotometry and fluorescence microscopy(2006-03) Wozei, Eleanor; Holman, H-Y.N.; Hermanowicz, S.W.; Borglin, S.Environmental estrogens are environmental contaminants that can mimic the biological activities of the female hormone estrogen in the endocrine system, i.e. they act as endocrine disrupters. Several substances are reported to have estrogen-like activity or estrogenic activity. These include steroid hormones, synthetic estrogens (xenoestrogens), environmental pollutants and phytoestrogens (plant estrogens). Using the chromogenic substrate ortho-nitrophenyl-β-D-galactopyranoside (ONPG) we show that an estrogen-sensitive yeast strain RMY/ER-ERE, with human estrogen receptor (hERα) gene and the lacZ gene which encodes the enzyme β-galactosidase, is able to detect estrogenic activity in water samples over a wide range of spiked concentrations of the hormonal estrogen 17β-estradiol (E2). Ortho-nitrophenol (ONP), the yellow product of this assay can be detected using spectrophotometry but requires cell lysis to release the enzyme and allow product formation. We improved this aspect in a fluorogenic assay by using fluorescein di-β-D galactopyranoside (FDG) as a substrate. The product was visualized using fluorescence microscopy without the need to kill, fix or lyse the cells. We show that in live yeast cells, the uptake of E2 and the subsequent production of β-galactosidase enzyme occur quite rapidly, with maximum enzyme-catalyzed fluorescent product formation evident after about 30 minutes of exposure to E2. The fluorogenic assay was applied to a selection of estrogenic compounds and the Synchrotron-based Fourier transform infrared (SR-FTIR) spectra of the cells obtained to better understand the yeast whole cell response to the compounds. The fluorogenic assay is most sensitive to E2, but the SR-FTIR spectra suggest that the cells respond to all the estrogenic compounds tested even when no fluorescent response was detected. These findings are promising and may shorten the duration of environmental water screening and monitoring regimes using yeast-based estrogen assays, and the development of biosensors for environmental estrogens designed to complement quantification methods.
- ItemDeveloping a yeast-based assay protocol to monitor total oestrogenic activity induced by 17β-oestradiol in activated sludge supernatants from batch experiments(Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, 2006-04-11) Wozei, Eleanor; Hermanowicz, SWA yeast-based assay protocol developed for detecting oestrogenic activity in activated sludge (AS) supernatant is described. The protocol used Saccharomyces cerevisiae construct RMY/ER-ERE with human oestrogen receptor (ERα) and lacZ reporter genes, and was developed by modifying existing assays for use with AS samples from batch experiments. The method was able to detect total oestrogenic activity (without prior extraction) in supernatants of AS spiked with 17β-oestra¬diol (E2) with a detection limit of 0.03 ngE2-equivalent/ℓ and an overall quantification limit of 100 ngE2-equivalent/ℓ. Mean E2-induced oestrogenic activity recoveries of >56% were obtained from the spiked samples.
- ItemApplication of a yeast-based assay protocol developed to monitor total oestrogenic activity induced by 17β-oestradiol in activated sludge supernatants from batch experiments(Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, 2006-04-11) Wozei, Eleanor; Hermanowicz, SWBatch experiments were carried out with activated sludge from laboratory reactors and a full-scale treatment plant spiked with 17β-oestradiol (E2). An oestrogen-sensitive yeast-based assay protocol, described in detail in a related publication, was used to measure reduction of E2-induced total oestrogenic activity from the sludge supernatant over a 15 d period after which the sludge was re-spiked to check for possible enhancement of reduction by pre-exposed sludge during an additional 15 d period. The reduction was generally improved by increasing sludge solids concentrations and by continuous mixing. For a 100 ngE2/ℓ spike there was >40% reduction of oestrogenic activity within 15 d, which improved to >70% by pre-exposing the sludge. The oestrogenic activity produced by a dose of 100 μgE2/ℓ was readily removed by most sludges within 15 d. How¬ever, re-spiking the activated sludge with the same E2 concentration caused some sludges to lose reduction capacity.
- ItemComputational identification of transposable elements in the mouse genome(2007) Jjingo, Daudi; Makalowski, WojciechRepeat sequences cover about 39 percent of the mouse genome and completion of sequencing of the mouse genome  has enabled extensive research on the role of repeat sequences in mammalian genomics. This research covers the identification of Transposable elements (TEs) within the mouse transcriptome, based on available sequence information on mouse cDNAs (complementary DNAs) from GenBank . The transcripts are screened for repeats using RepeatMasker , whose results are sieved to retain only Interspersed repeats (IRS). Using various bioinformatics software tools as well as tailor made programming, the research establishes: (i) the absolute location coordinates of the TEs on the transcript. (ii) The location of the IRs with respect to the 5’UTR, CDS and 3’UTR sequence features. (iii) The quality of alignment of the TE’s consensus sequence on the transcripts where they exist, (iv) the frequencies and distributions of the TEs on the cDNAs, (v) descriptions of the types and roles of transcripts containing TEs. This information has been collated and stored in a relational database (MTEDB) at http://warta.bio.psu.edu/htt_doc/M TEDB/homepage.htm).