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- ItemThe 14 cost of commercial motorcycle accidents in Uganda(Taylor & Francis, 2017-04-21) Sebaggala, Richard; Matovu, Fred; Ayebale, Dan; Kisenyi, Vincent; Katusiimeh, MessarckUnderstanding the cost of the road traffic accidents (RTAs) has been of interest to many scholars and policy makers for a long time. In Uganda like many developing countries in Africa, injuries due to motorcycle accidents represent a major but often neglected emerging public health problem and contribute significantly to the overall road traffic injuries. This research study therefore explored the costs of motorcycle accidents and the pain, grief and sufferings of the motorcycle accident victims using a multi-method approach. Unlike many studies on cost of accidents which use the traditional human capital approach, this study in addition to the human capital approach, applied the Willingness-to-pay (WTP) approach to estimate the cost of motorcycle accidents. WTP method was used to estimate the value that boda boda riders would pay for reducing the risk of loss of life based on Contingent Valuation (CV) method. We extend the analysis to also explore the key coping mechanisms adopted by the Boda- boda riders amidst the challenges the riders face when they suffer motorcycle accidents. The data were obtained from multiple sources, including a survey of 1600 boda boda cyclists in Kawempe and Central divisions in Kampala City, interviews with accident victims and their immediate family members, traffic police records, hospitals and national statistics on selected economic aggregates. The results show that motorcycle accidents are associated with huge economic and non-economic burden borne by the accident victims and the society as a whole. The study established that it costs approximately 7 million shillings (or 2800 USD) to treat a boda boda accident victim who is severely injured. Based on annual police statistics on motorcycle accidents for 2012; the Ugandan economy losses more than UGX 3 billion (1.2m USD) value of output due to days away from productive work as result of severe injuries and death. Likewise, the cost of motorcycle repairs amounted to UGX 350 million (140,000 USD). The study also estimated the value of preventing motorcycle accidents. The estimates show that on average boda boda riders are willing to pay Ug Shs 222,550 (89 USD) a year for a reduction in mortality risks associated with motorcycle accidents that translate into UGX 4.45 billion (US$1.78m), the value of statistical life (VOSL). Overall, the combined economic burden of the motorycle accidents (repairs, medical costs, lost output and imputed cost of pain grief and suffering) were estimated to be approximately US$ 3.6 million annually. This cost is about 0.02% of Uganda’s GDP in 2013. The key policy implication of the study is that reducing motorcycle causalities and fatalities will reduce social and economic sufferings of victims, unlock growth and free resources for more productive use. The findings provide the cost-benefit analysis of any investment in areas that will promote the prevention, treatment, care and management of motorcycle accidents in Uganda.
- ItemABC for people with HIV: responses to sexual behavior recommendations among people receiving antiretroviral therapy in Jinja, Uganda(Routledge Taylor & Francis Group, 2011-03-09) Allen, Caroline; Mbonye, Martin; Seeley, Janet; Birungi, Josephine; Wolff, Brent; Coutinho, Alex; Jaffar, ShabbarPeople living with HIV who are taking antiretroviral therapy (ART) are increasingly involved in ‘positive prevention’ initiatives. These are generally oriented to promoting abstinence, ‘being faithful’ (partner reduction) and condom use (ABC). We conducted a longitudinal qualitative study with people living with HIV using ART, who were provided with adherence education and counselling support by a Ugandan nongovernmental organisation, The AIDS Support Organisation (TASO). Forty people were selected sequentially as they started ART, stratified by sex, ART delivery mode (clinic- or home-based) and HIV progression stage (early or advanced) and interviewed at enrolment and at 3, 6, 18 and 30 months. At initiation of ART, participants agreed to follow TASO’s positive-living recommendations. Initially poor health prevented sexual activity. As health improved, participants prioritised resuming economic production and support for their children. With further improvements, sexual desire resurfaced and people in relationships cemented these via sex. The findings highlight the limitations of HIV prevention based on medical care/personal counselling. As ART leads to health improvements, social norms, economic needs and sexual desires increasingly influence sexual behaviour. Positive prevention interventions need to seek to modify normative and economic influences on sexual behaviour, as well as to provide alternatives to condoms.
- ItemAbundance, distribution and effects of temperature and humidity on arthropod fauna in different rice ecosystems in Uganda(Journal of Entomology and Zoology Studies, 2017) Kizito, Elizabeth B.; Masika, Fred Bwayo; Masanza, Michael; Aluana, Goncalves; Barrigossi, Jose Alexandre FreitasThe study on abundance, distribution and effects of temperature and humidity on arthropod fauna was conducted in smallholder rice farming areas in three agro ecological zones of Lake Victoria basin, Northern moist farmlands and Western Savannah grasslands in Uganda. Arthropods were collected using a standard sweep net and a total of 17 orders representing 13,272 arthropods were recorded from the three agro – ecological zones during the study. Most arthropod fauna were collected in Bugiri, Lira and Kasese respectively. The most abundant orders throughout the survey included Homoptera, Coleoptera, Hemiptera, Diptera, Hymenoptera and Orthoptera. While the least abundant included Dermaptera, Zoraptera, Phasmatoda, Mantodae, Embioptera and Neuroptera. All orders except Embioptera, Mantodae, Neuroptera and Phasmatoda were collected in all the three agro ecological zones. The orders Diptera (p = 0.0282), Hymenoptera (p = 0.0051), Lepidoptera (p = 0.0149), Odonata (p = 0.0356) showed a significant difference in abundance in the three agro – ecological zones. Temperature and humidity had a significant effect on the arthropod population for example Aranea showed a positive correlation in their abundance with increase in temperature in all the agro – ecologies
- ItemAccess to improved sanitation facilities in low-income informal settlements of East African cities(2015-03-05) Okurut, Kenan; Kulabako, R. N.; Adogo, J. M.; Chenoweth, J.; Pedley, S.; Tsinda, A.; Charles, K.Throughout Africa, the population in urban areas is increasing rapidly beyond the capacity and the resources of the cities to accommodate the people. In Sub-Saharan Africa, the majority of urban dwellers live in informal settlements served by inadequate sanitation facilities. These areas present unique challenges to the provision of sanitation, and there is inadequate information on access to improved facilities. This paper reports findings of a study undertaken in low-income informal settlements using mixed methods to assess access to sanitation and identify the barriers to household improved sanitation facilities. Although more than half (59.7%) of the respondents reported using sanitation facilities that are included in the JMP definition of improved sanitation, a high proportion of these facilities did not provide “ access to basic sanitation” and less than 5% of all the respondents did not report issues related to sustainable access to basic sanitation. The findings highlight the urgent need to develop a more specific and strategic interventions for each low-income informal settlement, to upscale the sustainable access and use of improved sanitation in urban centres.
- ItemThe Accreditation Process and Challenges of Private Religious Based Universities in Uganda(International Journal of Pedagogical Innovations, 2013) Otto, Francis; Musinguzi, BenonThe quantitative growth in Ugandan higher education subsector has created many challenges including a drop in quality in education delivery. Today, there are 34 universities in Uganda (up from 26 in 2006) with over 185,000 students (up from 137,190), representing an overall growth rate of more than 15% in the last 5 years. Given this rapid expansion of higher education, some form of regulation is necessary to assure quality. Ugandan government established the National Council for Higher Education (NCHE) as a regulatory agency to set standards and regulations to ensure that all public and private tertiary education institutions in Uganda create, sustain and improve the relevance and quality of higher education for all qualified Ugandans and to meet the local, national and global higher education challenges of the 21st century. In addition to sustaining and improving the relevance and quality of higher education, these religious based universities have a special mission of evangelism and discipleship and view all admissions and appointments as opportunities for ministry and service. This however, may not go well with the peer assessors and the Accrediting Agencies. Currently there are more than six recognised faith based universities in Uganda. Out of the seven fully accredited universities in Uganda, five are faith based and only two are secular. There are different views about the philosophies of these faith-based universities. Some people seem to suggest that they pay more attention to evangelism and discipleship than in provision of higher education. While others view this type of institutions as a very good model to provide good morals and education that can transform the society in a positive way. At the same time, the regulatory framework in the country must provide for an all-inclusive environment for all to participate in higher education which may pose a big challenge to these faith based institutions. This article therefore, discusses the accreditation process in Uganda and challenges of private religious based Universities in Uganda in regards to accreditation.
- ItemAction and Action-Regulation in Entrepreneurship: Evaluating a Student Training for Promoting Entrepreneurship(Academy of Management Learning & Education, 2015) Gielnik, Michael M.; Frese, Michael; Kahara-Kawuki, Audrey; Katono, Isaac Wasswa; Kyejjusa, Sarah; Munene, John; Ngoma, Muhammed; Namatovu-Dawa, Rebecca; Nansubuga, Florence; Orobia, Laura; Oyugi, Jacob; Sejjaaka, Samuel; Sserwanga, Arthur; Walter, Thomas; Bischoff, Kim Marie; Dlugosch, Thorsten J.Action plays a central role in entrepreneurship and entrepreneurship education. Based on action regulation theory, we developed an action-based entrepreneurship training. We investigated the question of how the training transmitted its effects on entrepreneurial action and start-up. The training put a particular focus on action insofar as the participants learned action principles and engaged in the start-up of a real business during the training. We evaluated the training’s impact over a 12-month period using a randomized control group design in a developing country (Uganda). As hypothesized, the training had positive effects on action-regulatory factors (entrepreneurial goals, action planning, action knowledge, and entrepreneurial self-efficacy) and the action-regulatory factors predicted entrepreneurial action. Entrepreneurial action and business opportunity identification mediated the effect of the training on new business start-up. Our study shows that an action-based entrepreneurship training promotes entrepreneurial action via action-regulatory mechanisms. Thus, action regulatory mechanisms play an important role in the process that leads to the new business creation.
- ItemAdaptation and Coping among East African Immigrants in North America(2017) Okahaabwa, GoorekaImmigrants are faced with the challenge of adapting to a culture different from their own. Successful adaptation includes socio-cultural adaptation, psychological adjustment, and coping. This study investigated cross-cultural adaptation and coping among East African immigrants in North America. Participants in this study were 51 individuals of East African origin who were over 20 years of age, residing in North America and recruited through a snowballing procedure. Participants completed the Acculturation Index, Socio-Cultural Adaptation Scale, and Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale, Ways of Coping Checklist (Revised), and a demographic questionnaire using Survey Monkey. Data analysis utilized SPSS. Independent samples-t- tests and Pearson product-moment correlations were conducted. Results indicated that there was no statistically significant difference in socio-cultural adaptation by: acculturation, coping, and migration with family. Additionally, there was no statistically significant difference in psychological adjustment by acculturation and participation in a faith community. Results revealed a positive correlation between psychological adjustment and socio-cultural adaptation, and a statistically significant difference in socio-cultural adaptation by participation in faith community. Further research into adaptation and coping among East African immigrants is recommended
- ItemAddressing ethnicity via biblical studies: a task of African biblical scholarship(Neotestamentica, 2010) Nyende, PeterIn view of the ethnic crisis in Africa and the complexities of the discipline of Biblical Studies, one wonders how African biblical scholarship could address ethnic issues in Africa through its study of the Bible and its Biblical Studies curriculum. I identify three ways of addressing ethnicity through Biblical Studies which I argue for, make sense of, and distinguish by means of methodology (broadly conceived), and the goals of African biblical
- ItemAdherence to Antiretroviral Therapy in Jinja, Uganda: A Six-Year Follow-Up Study(2013-10-11) Mbonye, Martin; Seeley, Janet; Ssembajja, Fatuma; Birungi, Josephine; Jaffar, ShabbarIntroduction: We report on the adherence experience of a group of people living with HIV on ART over six years in Uganda. Methods: Between 2005 and 2009, we followed up 41 participants who were also part of a clinical trial comparing home and facility based delivery of ART in Jinja, eastern Uganda. We conducted qualitative in-depth interviews at enrolment, 3, 6, 18 and 30 months to capture experiences with adherence over time. In 2011 we returned to these participants to find out how they were fairing with long term adherence. We managed to retrace 24 participants and interviewed them about their experience. We thematically analysed the data and compared findings over time. Results: Initially there were few barriers to adherence and many followed the adherence guidance closely. By year six, relaxation of these rules was noticeable although self-reported adherence continued to be high. Alcohol consumption was more common than before. Some relatives of the participants who had died claimed that some deaths were a result of alcohol. While participants reported that ART had allowed them to reclaim independence and return to work the changes in work and social routines created new challenges for adherence. Side effects like lipodystrophy were not only causing some stigma but for some tested their faith in the drugs. Many participants reported resumption of sexual lives but apart from those who selected same status partners, disclosure to new partners was minimal.
- ItemAge, sex, and nutritional status modify the CD4+ T-cell recovery rate in HIV–tuberculosis co-infected patients on combination antiretroviral therapy(International Journal of Infectious Diseases, 2015-03) Ezeamama, Amara E.; Mupere, Ezekiel; Oloya, James; Martinez, Leonardo; Kakaire, Robert; Yin, Xiaoping; Sekandi, Juliet N.; Whalen, Christopher C.Background We examined baseline age and combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) as determinants of CD4+T-cell recovery during six months of tuberculosis (TB) therapy with/without cART. We determined whether this association was modified by patient sex and nutritional status. Methods This longitudinal analysis included 208 immune-competent, non-pregnant, ART-naive HIV-positive patients from Uganda with a first episode of pulmonary TB. CD4+T-cell count was measured using flow cytometry. Age was defined as ≤24, 25–29, 30–34, 35–39 vs. ≥ 40 years. Nutritional status was defined as normal (>18.5kg/m2) vs. underweight (≤18.5kg/m2) using body mass index (BMI). Multivariate random-effects linear mixed models were fitted to estimate differences in CD4+T-cell recovery in relation to specified determinants. Results cART was associated with a monthly rise of 15.7 cells/μL (p<0.001). Overall, age was not associated with CD4+T-cell recovery during TB therapy (p=0.655). However, among patients on cART, age-associated CD4+T-cell recovery rate varied by sex and nutritional status such that age <40 vs. ≥ 40 years predicted superior absolute CD4+T-cell recovery among females (p=0.006) and among patients with BMI≥18.5kg/m2 (p<0.001). Conclusions TB infected HIV-positive patients ≥ 40 years have a slower rate of immune restoration given cART-particularly if BMI>18.5kg/m2 or female. They may benefit from increased monitoring and nutritional support during cART.
- ItemAIDS communication campaigns in Uganda: organisational factors and campaign planning as predictors of successful campaign execution(Routledge, 2009) Kiwanuka-Tondo, James; Jameson, Jessica Katz; Hamilton, MarkAbout 60% of all the HIV/AIDS cases are found in sub-Saharan Africa (UNAIDS, 2007). While a few countries in the region have shown a decline in prevalence, most countries in southern Africa have made little progress in their fight against AIDS. The goal of this study was to provide empirical support to confirm and extend an earlier model of the effect of organizational factors and campaign planning on campaign execution to help answer the question of what makes for a successful communication campaign to change AIDS-related behavior. A survey of the top leaders of 120 Ugandan organizations delivering AIDS communication campaigns supports a model that illustrates the vital role of several features, such as focused campaign goals, the formality of organizational structure, and outreach worker supervision, on effective campaign execution. Surprisingly, financial resources are negatively related to goal extensiveness and message clarity and may be a distraction during campaign execution.
- ItemAmplifying local voices to reduce failure in the water, sanitation and hygiene sector(Royal Academy of Engineering, 2021) Barrington, D.J; Sindall, R.C; Chinyama, A; Morse, T; Sule, M.N; Beale, J; Kativhu, T; Krishnan, S; Luwe, K; Malolo, R.D; Mcharo, O; Odili, A; Ravndal, K.T; Rose, J; Shaylor, E; Wozei, EleanorWASH endeavours regularly fail. Sometimes this means that entire programmes do not achieve their stated aims, sometimes these failures are setbacks which can be rectified with sufficient reflection and action. This research aimed to develop an evidence base of how and why field-based WASH professionals in four sub-Saharan African countries believe failures occur, their experiences when sharing and discussing them within their organisations, and how they believe a culture conducive to publicly sharing and learning from failures could be nurtured.
- ItemAn analysis of bullying in schools as presented by two Ugandan novels(Academic Journals, 2018) Naula, Mary; Muranga, Manuel; Gulere, Cornelius Wambi; Owor, Joseph JakisaThis paper analyzes the depictions of bullying in schools in two selected Ugandan novels: Goretti Kyomuhendo’s The First Daughter (1996) and Mary Karooro Okurut’s The invisible Weevil (1998). The study is about the vices that education transmits to the learners depending on the socio-cultural and political context. One of them that education transmits is the bullying of fellow students. Bullying is both physical and verbal violence and it can affect the emotional, social, and physical wellbeing of students (and staff). The study adopts a qualitative content analysis of two Ugandan novels to give interpretation of the text data. We have used qualitative content analysis to identify the theme and the main characters in the two novels and made interpretations. Content analysis helped us understand bullying as practiced in schools. The study found that the schools presented by both novels see bullying as severe and traumatizing. Both boys and girls are bullied, and it affects their emotional, social, and physical wellbeing. This behavior is probably a result of global influence in our school system. Traditional Ugandan education was characterized by close social, ethical, collective orientation and ensured progressive character development of the child. Some of the values transmitted in traditional Ugandan education included community-orientation, love and respect for others. The vice of bullying is likely to have originated from the formal type of education which is more individualistic oriented. We recommend that a more effective education system for Uganda is one that combines or inculcates the traditional values of community-orientation, love and respect for others with elements of modern education.
- ItemAn analysis of bullying in schools as presented by two Ugandan novels(International Journal of English and Literature, 2018-11) Naula, Mary; Muranga, Manuel; Gulere, Cornelius Wambi; Owor, Joseph JakisaThis paper analyzes the depictions of bullying in schools in two selected Ugandan novels: Goretti Kyomuhendo’s The First Daughter (1996) and Mary Karooro Okurut’s The invisible Weevil (1998). The study is about the vices that education transmits to the learners depending on the socio-cultural and political context. One of them that education transmits is the bullying of fellow students. Bullying is both physical and verbal violence and it can affect the emotional, social, and physical wellbeing of students (and staff). The study adopts a qualitative content analysis of two Ugandan novels to give interpretation of the text data. We have used qualitative content analysis to identify the theme and the main characters in the two novels and made interpretations. Content analysis helped us understand bullying as practiced in schools. The study found that the schools presented by both novels see bullying as severe and traumatizing. Both boys and girls are bullied, and it affects their emotional, social, and physical wellbeing. This behavior is probably a result of global influence in our school system. Traditional Ugandan education was characterized by close social, ethical, collective orientation and ensured progressive character development of the child. Some of the values transmitted in traditional Ugandan education included community-orientation, love and respect for others. The vice of bullying is likely to have originated from the formal type of education which is more individualistic oriented. We recommend that a more effective education system for Uganda is one that combines or inculcates the traditional values of community-orientation, love and respect for others with elements of modern education.
- ItemAnalysis of persistence soil nutrient status in abandoned cattle kraals in a semi arid area in Botswana(2010-12) Kizza, Sarah; Otlogetswe, Totolo; Perkins, Jeremy; Olusegun, AreolaThe aim of this study was to analyze the depletion of soil nutrients with time on abandoned kraals in a peri-urban area of Botswana. Active kraals are enriched with nutrients through the accumulation of animal droppings and this study was aimed at assessing how long the impact of this soil nutrient enrichment persists after kraal abandonment. A total of 25 disused kraals, that had been abandoned for periods ranging from 1 to 45 years were sampled. The soil parameters analyzed included particle size distribution (%), bulk density (g/cm3), pore space (%), moisture content (%), pH in water and KCl solution, EC (µS/cm), organic matter (%), CEC (meq/100g), exchangeable Ca++ (cmolc/kg), Mg++ (cmolc/kg),K+ (cmolc/kg), Na+ (cmolc/kg), nitrogen [NH4-N (mg/kg), NO3-N (mg/kg), TKN (%), and Olsen P (mg/kg). Results showed that soil nutrient concentrations on abandoned kraals generally were significantly higher than at the control sites. Soil nutrient concentrations decreased with time as abandoned kraals retrogressed towards their pre-kraal conditions. However, the effects of soil nutrient enrichment from animal wastes persist long after kraal abandonment. For example, soil Olsen P, Ca++ and Mg++ levels in kraal sites that had been abandoned for over 45 years were still significantly higher than in the control sites. In a pastoral system such as is practiced in Botswana where kraal manure is not used as soil amendment, the whole ecosystem suffers as soil nutrients are transferred and concentrated at isolated spots (kraals).
- ItemAnalysis of the Accuracy of GMF, NMF, and VMF1 Mapping Functions with GPT 50 a Priori Zenith Constraint in Tropospheric Delay Modelling(2015-01) Makabayi, Brian; Hunegnaw, AddisuWhen modelling the tropospheric delay in Global Positioning System (GPS), the zenith delay is mapped to the slant with numerous mapping functions. The accuracy of the modelled tropospheric delay will be affected by the kind of mapping function used. Fixing the a priori zenith constraint as Global Temperature Pressure Humidity 50 (GPT 50), this paper compares the accuracy of the different mapping. Global Mapping Function (GMF), Niell Mapping Function (NMF) and Updated Vienna Mapping Function (VMF1), the update of Vienna Mapping Function (VMF) are the mapping functions studied. All these are used with the saastamoinen tropospheric delay model which is used in the GPS Analysis Software for the Massachusetts Institute of Technology software (GAMIT_GLOBK). For the north and east offsets these mapping functions achieved the same accuracy and can therefore be used interchangeably in modelling of the tropospheric delay effect in the planner. However, for the up offsets VMF1 achieved better accuracy compared to GMF and NMF however, being more consistent with GMF than NMF. In the future, if more mapping functions are incorporated in GAMIT_GLOBK, the accuracy of these new mapping functions should be investigated and use another a priori zenith constraint – meteorological data, which will improve positioning using Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS).
- ItemAnalysis of the Depiction of Corporal Punishment in Two Ugandan Novels and Its Effects on Students(SCIENCEDOMAIN international (SDI), 2018) Naula, Mary; Gulere, Cornelius Wambi; Owor, Joseph JakisaThis paper examines the portrayal of corporal punishment in Mary Karooro Okurut’s The Invisible Weevil  and Julius Ocwinyo’s Fate of the Banished . The researchers investigate the issues and challenges surrounding the students who are subjected to corporal punishment as portrayed in two Ugandan novels within the framework of post-colonial theory. This study has used a qualitative content analysis of two Ugandan novels followed by identification of the key words, concepts, themes, phrases, characters, or sentences within texts or sets of texts to unfold subjective interpretation of the novels. Qualitative content analysis was used to investigate how corporal punishment has affected the students. The study found that corporal punishment produces fear, timidity, submissiveness and violence and is the root cause of school dropout, as evidenced by characters in the two novels. It is concluded that fear, timidity, rebellion and violence are consequences of corporal punishment in the school setting. It is recommended that the Ministry of Education and all the stakeholders should endeavor to end corporal punishment in schools because it diminishes a child's capacity to grow up as a responsible person.
- ItemAnalysis of the Depiction of Corporal Punishment in Two Ugandan Novels and Its Effects on Students(Asian Journal of Language, Literature and Culture Studies, 2018-11) Naula, Mary; Gulere, Cornelius W.; Owor, Joseph J.This paper examines the portrayal of corporal punishment in Mary Karooro Okurut’s The Invisible Weevil  and Julius Ocwinyo’s Fate of the Banished . The researchers investigate the issues and challenges surrounding the students who are subjected to corporal punishment as portrayed in two Ugandan novels within the framework of post-colonial theory. This study has used a qualitative content analysis of two Ugandan novels followed by identification of the key words, concepts, themes, phrases, characters, or sentences within texts or sets of texts to unfold subjective interpretation of the novels. Qualitative content analysis was used to investigate how corporal punishment has affected the students. The study found that corporal punishment produces fear, timidity, submissiveness and violence and is the root cause of school dropout, as evidenced by characters in the two novels. It is concluded that fear, timidity, rebellion and violence are consequences of corporal punishment in the school setting. It is recommended that the Ministry of Education and all the stakeholders should endeavor to end corporal punishment in schools because it diminishes a child's capacity to grow up as a responsible person.
- ItemAntioxidant potential of the farmer preferred selections of Solanum aethiopicum vegetable consumed in central Uganda(European Journal of Biological Research, 2018-03) Sekulya, S.; Nandutu, A.; Namutebi, A.; Ssozi, J.; Masanza, Michael; Kabod, B.; Jagwe, J. N.; Kasharu, A.; Rees, Deborah; Kizito, Elizabeth B.In addition to the rich micronutrient value, indigenous vegetables are regarded as possessing medicinal attributes. The Solanaceae family has over 1000 species worldwide, with a number of indigenous species originating in Africa. The most popular leafy vegetable in Uganda is the Solanum aethiopicum (Nakati). The objective of this study was to determine the selected phytochemical attributes, chlorophyll content, moisture content andtotal antioxidant activity of the farmer preferred selections within the landraces of Solanum aethiopicum leafy vegetable in Uganda. Theantioxidant activity was achieved by screening the leaf extracts for their free radical scavenging properties using diphenyl picryl hydrazyl (DPPH) and ascorbic acid as standard. The ability of the extracts to scavenge DPPH radical was determined Spectrophometrically at 517 nm. The study showed that all the landraces had a high polyphenol and flavonoid content with SAS185/P/2015 containing the highest flavonoid content (3.16±0.06 mg QE/g fw). SAS1641/2015 showed the highest total polyphenol content of 7.79±0.27 mg GAE/g fw and also showed the highest vitamin C content. This contributed to the high total antioxidant activity of 2.79±0.01 and 5.43±0.02 mg AAE/g fw when using FRAP and DPPH methods respectively. SAS145/2015 presented the highest chlorophyll content of 19.69±0.01 mg/g dwb. All the landraces showed a high percentage moisture content that ranged from 82.66±0.35 to 84.21±0.48%. These results are of nutraceutical significance and hence confirm their usage as medicinal vegetables.
- ItemApplication of a yeast-based assay protocol developed to monitor total oestrogenic activity induced by 17β-oestradiol in activated sludge supernatants from batch experiments(Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, 2006-04-11) Wozei, Eleanor; Hermanowicz, SWBatch experiments were carried out with activated sludge from laboratory reactors and a full-scale treatment plant spiked with 17β-oestradiol (E2). An oestrogen-sensitive yeast-based assay protocol, described in detail in a related publication, was used to measure reduction of E2-induced total oestrogenic activity from the sludge supernatant over a 15 d period after which the sludge was re-spiked to check for possible enhancement of reduction by pre-exposed sludge during an additional 15 d period. The reduction was generally improved by increasing sludge solids concentrations and by continuous mixing. For a 100 ngE2/ℓ spike there was >40% reduction of oestrogenic activity within 15 d, which improved to >70% by pre-exposing the sludge. The oestrogenic activity produced by a dose of 100 μgE2/ℓ was readily removed by most sludges within 15 d. How¬ever, re-spiking the activated sludge with the same E2 concentration caused some sludges to lose reduction capacity.