School of Journalism, Media and Communication

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    The Prevalence of HIV/AIDS Frames in Kenya Newspapers: A Summative Content Analysis of the Daily Nation
    (Taylor & Francis, 2019-03-25) Kiwanuka-Tondo, James; Kiptinness, Evonne Mwangale
    Kenya has one of the highest numbers of people living with HIV/AIDS in Africa (UNAIDS, 2018). The Kenyan media and most notably the Daily Nation play an important role in the social construction of HIV/AIDS nationally. This article uses the theory of media framing to understand the manner in which Kenyan newspapers make sense of the HIV/AIDS issue between the years 2011 and 2015. Specifically, this analysis focuses on multiple frames used by stakeholders with respect to the following topical categories (a) valence (positive/negative), (b) the action frame, (c) victim frame, (d) severity of HIV/AIDS in Kenya, (e) causes and solutions, and (f) beliefs about who is at risk. The findings show the action and victim frames to be most dominant. The group “other” was considered most at risk of contracting HIV, while positive valence was noted in most sampled articles.
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    The Influence of Organisational Characteristics and Campaign Design Elements on Communication Campaign Quality: Evidence From 91 Ugandan AIDS Campaigns
    (Taylor & Francis, 2002) Kiwanuka-Tondo, James; Snyder, Leslie B.
    This research proposes and tests a model of the relationship between organizational factors, campaign design elements, and campaign quality of communication campaigns. It is the first quantitative study to test these relationships across many organizations. The context for the study was AIDS education and outreach campaigns in Uganda, during a time of successful decrease in the spread of HIV infection. Ninety-one organisations were surveyed. Since only 14% of the organisations collected exposure or outcome data, the study focused on the factors affecting campaign quality. Quality was examined by measuring goal-specific city, execution quality, and message quality. The results show that financial resources, professional training, participation of outreach workers in planning the campaign, and audience participation in planning and executing the campaign were key organizational variables affecting the quality of the campaigns. The important campaign design elements affecting campaign quality were conducting research, using multiple channels, targeting only a few groups, and pretesting messages. The results have essential for campaign planners, managers of organizations conducting campaigns, and funders. In addition, it is vital that organizations collect exposure and outcome data in the future to provide feedback on each campaign.
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    Localizing Complex Scientific Communication: A SWOT Analysis and Multi-Sectoral Approach of Communicating Climate Change
    (Association for Computing Machinery, 2016) Kiwanuka-Tondo, James; Pettiway, Keon Mandell
    This paper argues that a SWOT analysis (Dyson, 2004; Helms & Nixon, 2010; Holtzhausen & Zerfass, 2015; Houben, Lenie, & Vanhoof, 1999; Noble & Bestley, 2011) and a multi-sectorial approach (Okware, Opio, Musingizi, & Waibale, 2001; The World Bank, 2000; Uganda AIDS Commission & UNAIDS, 2000) to strategic communication can provide communication designers with a conceptual framework for localizing climate prediction and risk management information. The overarching idea is to use a multi-way communication model, such as suggested by McQuail (1987), to downscale climate data in a way that better addresses the communication expectations of the public in different locales. Such approaches can reduce barriers that often inhibit the international transfer of technical and scientific data for public consumption in different global contexts. To examine these issues, this paper uses a SWOT analysis for considering strategic communication planning in international settings. In so doing, the paper examines the work of the Intergovernmental Authority on Development (IGARD) Climate Predictions and Applications Centre (ICPAC) in its efforts to respond to climate extremes and ensure disaster risk management in the Greater Horn of Africa.
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    Cross Regional Differences in HIV/AIDS Prevalence in Tanzania: How Socio-Economic and Cultural Contexts Affect Perceived Individual and Group Efficacy
    (Routledge, 2017) Kiwanuka-Tondo, James
    The purpose of this study was to conduct a cross-regional comparative analysis of the cultural, social, and economic differences that influence the HIV/AIDS prevalence as well as the differences in media channels and messages used in the prevention campaigns in two neighboring regions in Tanzania-Singida with one of the lowest (3.3%) and Iringa with one of the highest (9.1%) prevalence in the country. Four focus groups were conducted in each region among both rural and urban areas in the two regions. The findings indicated major differences in tribal composition, cultural, social, and economic factors that influence sexual behaviors in the two regions. Participants also indicated that there were differences in media channels used in the prevention campaigns in the two regions. The findings have practical and theoretical implications for campaign designers, scholars, organizations, and funding agencies in Tanzania in particular and sub-Saharan Africa in general.
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    Climate Risk Communication of Navigation Safety and Climate Conditions Over Lake Victoria Basin: Exploring Perceptions and Knowledge of Indigenous Communities
    (Routledge, 2019-03-20) Kiwanuka-Tondo, James; Semazzi, Fredrick; Pettiway, Keon
    Governmental and non-governmental organizations have increasingly developed climate services and products to improve safety on Lake Victoria, Africa’s largest and the world’s second-largest freshwater lake. Despite these efforts and other interests in efficient exploitation of natural resources, Lake Victoria is one of the most dangerous waterways in the world. Each year, around 5,000 people lose their lives on the lake due to navigation accidents. The purpose of this study is to analyze the perceptions of the stakeholders about climate change, meteorological services, causes of accidents, and cultural, social, and economic barriers that lead to a lack of safety of navigation on Lake Victoria. The study uses anecdotal interviews with a convenience sample of five participants and surveys research with a convenience sample of 316 respondents from Burundi, Kenya, Rwanda, Tanzania, and Uganda. The study makes a significant contribution to the understanding of the multilayered ecological, socioeconomic, environmental, technological, and health-related factors that influence the safety of navigation on the lake by harnessing the indigenous knowledge of the stakeholders about their concerns and experiences. The authors assert and reaffirm the importance of integrating indigenous and scientific climate knowledge, offering strategies to enhance climate services and make technological products culturally relevant.