Master of Science in Water and Sanitation

Permanent URI for this collection


Recent Submissions

Now showing 1 - 4 of 4
  • Item
    Land Uses Impacts on Spatial and Temporal Water Quality Variations within Kinawataka Wetland Uganda
    (2024-02-28) Sharon Mirial Okonga
    Uganda’s urban wetlands like Kinawataka wetland are increasing affected by effluent discharge from different industrial establishments which poses a great threat to their different components and surrounding dependant human communities. The wetland is a vital ecosystem that provides livelihood opportunities and acts as a watershed that removes nutrient loads from water. However, land use changes and wetland degradation have negatively impacted the quality of water flowing in and out of the wetland. This study summarizes the impacts of land use on spatial and temporal water quality variations within Kinawataka Wetland in Uganda. This study therefore assessed the impacts of pollution loading on water quality within Kinawataka wetland in Kampala district. The study primarily focused on mapping land use changes, geographical and temporal fluctuations in physico-chemical parameters, heavy metals, and nutrient concentrations in water along Kinawataka Wetland in order to provide baseline data for its future conservation and sustainable usage. This study undertook a quantitative research approach with data collected from four purposively selected sites within Kinawataka wetland. In addition to Land use mapping around purposively selected sites, some parameters were measured in-situ whereas others were analysed in the Laboratory. The study findings in Figure 3 illustrate land use changes in Kinawataka wetland (2010-2020): significant growth in built-up areas, a fluctuating pattern for agricultural land, and consistent declines in forested areas and papyrus coverage. Water quality analysis was performed according to Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Wastewater. The study findings revealed that apart from pH, other physico-chemical parameters of water significantly differed (P < 0.05) at different sites within Kinawataka wetland and over study seasons. Heavy metal concentrations also varied among sites with sites closer to point source industrial effluent discharge such as site 2 having higher concentrations of heavy metals compared to sites distant from industrial establishments such as site 1, 6 and 3. Further, Nutrient concentrations in water varied differently among sites along Kinawataka wetland with each site irrespective of location having a particular nutrient in relatively higher concentration than that at other sites. Further research was recommended to ascertain the implications of the effluent discharge on the biological properties and diversity of Kinawataka wetland components in general.
  • Item
    Potential of Alum Sludge from Katosi Drinking Water Treatment Plant for Reduction of Phosphorus in Wastewater Treatment Plant Effluent in Uganda
    (2024-02-29) Sharon Anneys Naayo
    In response to the global surge in wastewater production due to population growth and economic development, improving wastewater treatment is crucial. The presence of excess nutrients, particularly phosphorus (P), in wastewater effluent poses a significant threat of eutrophication. This study, therefore, set out to assess the potential of reusing alum sludge from the Katosi Drinking Water Treatment Plant (KDWTP) as a phosphorus adsorbent in wastewater effluent, aiming at finding a more sustainable and effective alum sludge disposal solution while reducing environmental and health risks associated with P-contamination. Effluent samples were analysed for total phosphorus, temperature, pH, and turbidity. Alum sludge was characterized using a variety of methods (pH, moisture content, FTIR, XRF, and SEM analyses). Phosphorus reduction was evaluated using alum sludge granules (ASG) prepared by binding oven-dried alum sludge with Carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) in batch experiments. The effect of varying contact time and ASG masses on phosphorus reduction was investigated. The adsorption behaviour was described by the Langmuir and Freundlich models, and statistical tests were used to determine model suitability and group differences. The alum sludge exhibited favourable characteristics for phosphorus adsorption, with a maximum adsorption capacity of 0.3 mg/g. The highest reduction, 86 %, was achieved at 24 hours of contact at an ASG mass of 9 g. The Langmuir isotherm model, with a coefficient of determination, R², of 0.743, provided the best fit for total phosphorus adsorption onto ASG, demonstrating the potential of reusing alum sludge from the Katosi Drinking Water Treatment Plant for phosphorus reduction in wastewater effluent in Uganda. Further field testing, pilot studies, and exploration of granulation techniques are recommended for real-world applications.
  • Item
    Developing Characteristic Regional Groundwater Yield Curves in Different Geological Settings of Pader, Agago and Kitgum Districts in Northern Uganda
    (Uganda Christian University, 2023-09-10) Samuel Senfuma
    The main objective of this study was to develop characteristic regional groundwater yield curves in different geological settings of Pader, Agago and Kitgum Districts in Northern Uganda to act as references and guides during ground water prospecting. The specific research objectives were to: (i) identify the Vertical Electrical Soundings (VESes) for forty selected wells(Deep boreholes) drilled in Agago, Pader and Kitgum Districts and characterise the wells yields ranges, (ii)analyse geological and hydrogeological conditions for ground water exploration in the Districts and (iii) develop the characteristic regional groundwater yield curves that will be referred to during ground water investigations in the Districts. The identified VESes for forty selected wells drilled in Agago (08), Pader (04) and Kitgum (28) Districts under Orom Water Supply project respectively were used in this study. Resistivity curves (VES) used for each of the forty selected well sites was based on availability of supervised drilling data (lithological logs and Test pumping data) from the onsite supervisor and drilling contractor. The Total Depth of boreholes drilled in the study area was found to be highest with a mean of (130.6±3.0) m in Agago District, followed by (126.9±1.3) m in Kitgum district and lowest in Pader District with (121.0±0.5) m. On the other hand, mean water strike depth was found to be deepest in Kitgum (64.6±3.1) mbgl, followed by Pader (55.9±9.2) mbgl and shallowest in Agago District with (54.7±7.1) mbgl. However, the mean aquifer yield was highest in Pader district (19.0±4.1) m3/hr, (17.8±2.5) m3/hr in Kitgum district and (11.9±1.2) m3/hr in Agago District. The mean Swing Angle of the resistivity curves in the three districts of Agago, Kitgum and Pader were respectively (4.9±5.6)o, (17.8±2.5)o, and (19.0±4.1)o. Over all, as the distance within the region increases in the Eastern direction, the yield decreases from as high as over 26.0 m3/hr to as low as below 2.0 m3/hr. From a distance of 520000 mE to over 570000 mE, the yield is not spatially affected by shifting in the Northern direction, i.e., generally no change in yield from 340000 mN to 390000 mN. For distances between 335,000 mN to 360,000 mN, the Water Strikes are generally experienced at depths less than 60 mbgl, regardless of the eastern distance. This is a similar situation for distances between 490,000 mE to 530,000 mE where Water Strikes are achieved at depths less than 60mbgl, regardless of the distance along the Northern direction. The Total Depth (TD) of wells vary from 102 m to as high as 156 m, with half of the area having TD of less than 120 m and the other half having depths of 120 to 156 m. Spatially, there is a general similar TD of wells within the region, indicating that there are aquifers within the region at depths of 102 m to 156 m with an average value of 129 m. The Average Swinge Angle (ASA) of the Resistivity Curves typical of the area varies from as low as (-35)o to as high as 40o. Generally, the ASA varies relatively uniform over the area and therefore has no much effect on the groundwater exploration within the area. Below Total Depth (TD) of 115 m, regardless of the Water Strike depths, the Pump Test yield varies from as low as 18.0 m3/hr to as high as greater than 38.0 m3/hr. Above Total Depths of greater 140 m, the Pump Test Yield decreases from as high as 22.0 m3/hr to as low as below 2.0 m3/hr, regardless of the Water Strike depths. Between Total Depths of 120 m and 140 m, the Pump Test Yields are relatively higher, ranging from 18.0m3/hr to as high as 30.0 m3/hr. The best predictive model for Aquifer Yield (Y) within the region based on Total Depth (TD) and Water Strike Depths (WSD) for each lithological (geology)feature was found to have satisfactory Coefficient of Determination (R2) of 66.8% and is of the form, Y_i=β_0+β_1 ln⁡(TD)+β_2 ln⁡(WSD) Where Y_i= The Pump Test Yield for a borehole of Lithology ‘i’ in m3/h; TD =Total Depth of the borehole in m; WSD= Water Strike Depth in m; β_0, β_1 and β_2 are the Regression coefficients determinable by Multiple Linear Regression method. These coefficients were determined for each of the eight (8) Lithologies in the region and summarized using matrix notation as: (█(■(Y_AGG@Y_ASLD@Y_BGC )@Y_IGSVDP@Y_KG@Y_MG@Y_MGG@Y_VDG ))=(█(■(175.7&-32.67&0.712@174.7&-32.67&0.712@176.2&-32.67&0.712)@■(160.5&-32.67&0.712@169.0&-32.67&0.712@176.0&-32.67&0.712)@■(167.5&-32.67&0.712)@■(165.8&-32.67&0.712)))(■(1@ln(TD)@ln⁡(WSD))) Therefore, this study major finding will guide groundwater exploration within the region by identifying and determining the Yield based on lithology. The approach used in the study can be applied during groundwater investigations to identify potential drilling points for groundwater supplies while minimizing cases of dry or low yielding wells. Application of this approach to groundwater investigation should take into account the factors that influence the occurrence and movement of groundwater in the study area. Geology and geological structures should be comprehensively investigated prior to application of this method. This study has also revealed that the North Western (extended network of geological structures) and North Eastern regions (with direct connectivity with the main aquifer/alluvial sediments) specifically in Kitgum District constitute good groundwater potential for prospecting, while based on the data density, the Northern part of Pader and Agago constitute good potential areas.
  • Item
    Assessment of Heavy Metal Concentrations in Water, Sediment and Water Hyacinth of the Inner Murchison Bay, Lake Victoria
    (Uganda Christian University, 2023-09-08) Rosette Zawadi Lokuni
    This study assessed heavy metal pollution in the Inner Murchison Bay within Lake Victoria region. The assessment was based on determination of concentrations of heavy metals in water, sediment and water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes). The Bay is the abstraction point of water supplied in Kampala City and metropolitan areas. It is also the recipient of partially treated and untreated wastewater from the City. There is a potential for continuous deterioration of the Bay’s water quality due to anthropogenic activities carried out in its catchment. Twelve sampling locations that are representative of the Bay were used to gather samples of water, sediment, and water hyacinth based on cross-sectional study. Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer (AAS) analysis was performed on the samples to ascertain their lead (Pb), cadmium (Cd), and mercury (Hg) concentrations. Results showed that the concentration of Pb and Cd in water was above the permissible limits set by WHO and NEMA (Pb:0.01ppm and Cd:0.003) at all sites. In sediment, Pb was below the LEL (31.0) while Cd exceeded both the LEL (0.60) and TEL (0.99) signifying that the values of Pb and Cd were permissible as per the sediment assessment guidelines Contamination Factor and Pollution Load Index indicated moderate pollution of the sediment with Pb and Cd (CF>1, PLI>1). The values of Bio-concentration factor for water hyacinths were above 1 indicating that the plants were able to take up Pb and Cd from water. Mercury (Hg) was below the detectable levels in all the samples. Pb and Cd are from agricultural fertilizers, industrial effluent, urban runoff, wastewater effluent, navigation and recreational activities carried out in the catchment of the Bay. Evidence of concentration of heavy metals in water, sediment and water hyacinth indicates pollution of the Bay by heavy metals thus continuous monitoring of the Bay’s state is crucial. Key words: Inner Murchison Bay, Heavy Metals, Contamination Factor, Pollution Load Index, Water hyacinth, Bio-concentration Factor, Lowest Element Level (LEL), Threshold Element Level (TEL), Probable Effect Concentration (PEC) and Severe Effect Level (SEL)