Land Uses Impacts on Spatial and Temporal Water Quality Variations within Kinawataka Wetland Uganda

Thumbnail Image
Journal Title
Journal ISSN
Volume Title
Uganda’s urban wetlands like Kinawataka wetland are increasing affected by effluent discharge from different industrial establishments which poses a great threat to their different components and surrounding dependant human communities. The wetland is a vital ecosystem that provides livelihood opportunities and acts as a watershed that removes nutrient loads from water. However, land use changes and wetland degradation have negatively impacted the quality of water flowing in and out of the wetland. This study summarizes the impacts of land use on spatial and temporal water quality variations within Kinawataka Wetland in Uganda. This study therefore assessed the impacts of pollution loading on water quality within Kinawataka wetland in Kampala district. The study primarily focused on mapping land use changes, geographical and temporal fluctuations in physico-chemical parameters, heavy metals, and nutrient concentrations in water along Kinawataka Wetland in order to provide baseline data for its future conservation and sustainable usage. This study undertook a quantitative research approach with data collected from four purposively selected sites within Kinawataka wetland. In addition to Land use mapping around purposively selected sites, some parameters were measured in-situ whereas others were analysed in the Laboratory. The study findings in Figure 3 illustrate land use changes in Kinawataka wetland (2010-2020): significant growth in built-up areas, a fluctuating pattern for agricultural land, and consistent declines in forested areas and papyrus coverage. Water quality analysis was performed according to Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Wastewater. The study findings revealed that apart from pH, other physico-chemical parameters of water significantly differed (P < 0.05) at different sites within Kinawataka wetland and over study seasons. Heavy metal concentrations also varied among sites with sites closer to point source industrial effluent discharge such as site 2 having higher concentrations of heavy metals compared to sites distant from industrial establishments such as site 1, 6 and 3. Further, Nutrient concentrations in water varied differently among sites along Kinawataka wetland with each site irrespective of location having a particular nutrient in relatively higher concentration than that at other sites. Further research was recommended to ascertain the implications of the effluent discharge on the biological properties and diversity of Kinawataka wetland components in general.