Faculty of Engineering, Design and Technology
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- ItemAn access control framework for protecting personal electronic health records(The MAURICON 2018 International Conference on Intelligent and Innovative Computing Applications (ICONIC), 2018) Izaara, Ambrose Atiheire; Ssembatya, Richard; Kaggwa, FredThe increasing expansion of wireless systems and the extensive popularity and usage of mobile devices such as mobile phones and wireless tablets represents a great opportunity to use mobile devices as widespread health data access tools. Unfortunately, some problems impeding the general acceptance of mhealth such as privacy protection, limitation of wireless networks and handheld devices are still common. Challenges such as unreliable data repositories and limited connection speeds in resource-limited environments are also evident. The inadequate capabilities of hand-held devices and wireless systems make these Public Key Cryptography based frameworks unsuitable for mobile networks. Moreover, these protocols were designed to preserve the customary flow of health data, which is vulnerable to attack and increase the user’s risk. This research drew its foundations from literature and theoretical review and used qualitative approaches. In this paper, the researchers build on existing concepts of Medical Information Systems and use of Symmetric Key Infrastructure to design a framework for secure access to personal electronic health records. The framework provides identity protection for a patient from all forms of unauthorised data access. The framework not only reduces the computational operations between the engaging parties, but also achieves privacy protection for the user. Validation results from ICT experts demonstrate that the designed framework is applicable to secure access to personal medical health records in resource-limited settings.
- ItemBiodegradation of Estrogenic Compounds and Its Enhancement in a Membrane Bioreactor – Research Category III, Water Quality(UC Berkeley Center for Water Resources Technical Completion, 2002-09) Hermanowicz, Slawomir W.; Wozei, EleanorIn the project, we investigated enhancement removal of estrogenic activities in activated sludge. These activities are caused by natural and synthetic substances that mimic the effect of the human hormone estrogen and they potentially can disrupt the endocrine systems of exposed species and the reproductive systems of aquatic fauna. Human and animal wastes are a source of natural and synthetic estrogens to the environment since only a fraction is removed in conventional wastewater treatment. A yeast-based assay developed previously was modified to detect the estrogenic activity in wastewater samples. Using the assay, it was possible to quantify estrogenic activity in range equivalent to between approximately 100ng/L to 100g/L of the female hormone 17-estradiol (E2), with sensitivity as low as 0.03ngE2/L. The assay is therefore sensitive to the concentrations of environmental estrogens typically found in wastewater and the new assay may be a useful tool for screening for estrogenic activity. Compared to existing chemical analytical methods, the new test is simpler and covers a wider range of compounds. This is important because by-products of some of the influent estrogens are also active estrogens. For example, E2 is metabolized to estrone and estriol, which are estrogenic. Monitoring the removal of only a few substances may underestimate the estrogenic properties of treatment plant effluents and solids disposed of into the environment. Further experiments were carried out to determine the removal of estrogenic activity from water. Results show that the presence of activated sludge enhances removal of total estrogenic activity by at least 40% within 10-15 days.
- ItemDesigning a Paved Road Using Geogrids to Reduce the Thickness of the Pavement Layers(9th South African Young Geotechnical Engineers Conference, 2017) Melling, H. C.; Tusabe, K. S.; Jjuuko, S.; Kalumba, D.Performance and durability of road pavements are significantly dependent on the strength and stability of the underlying soil layers, most especially the subgrade pavement layer. Currently, in Uganda most roads are constructed through low lying areas characterized by soft, hence weak, clay soils. The main practice, of improving the strength of such subgrade layers, has been to import stronger lateritic soils and dump them in layers over the weaker soils in thicknesses of more than 1.0 m. This is expensive, especially in terms of the haulage costs, and not environmentally friendly. Additionally, the lateritic soils are also getting depleted. Hence the need to utilize alternative means of increasing the strength of weak subgrades. This study focused on the application of Geogrids in pavement layers to reduce their overall thickness and life cycle costs of the road. A low-lying section on the Bajjo road, a bypass connecting Mukono to Seeta, was used as a case study. According to the AASHTO classification system of subgrade materials, the subgrade soils fell under the soil ranges of A-7, A-7-6, and A-6 group, therefore a poor subgrade material requiring stabilization. The average CBR was determined as 19%. The inclusion of the Geogrid reduced the overall layer works thickness by 25% and it’s cost effective by 42% over the whole lifecycle of the road.
- ItemThe Effect of expanded polystyrene and cement on properties of sand soils for foundation use(17th African Regional Conference on Soil Mechanics and Geotechnical Engineering, 2019-10) Mugera, P.; Magyezi, S.; Jjuuko, S.; Kalumba, D.The increase in Expanded Polystyrene (EPS) waste in Uganda is prone to cause serious environmental pollution owing to the related poor disposal methods. The common practices include open disposal and/or burning which are both environmentally degrading. Other approaches of recycling EPS are unpopular and quite expensive. This research aimed to investigate the effect of EPS and cement on sand soil for a foundation material. The soil was a poorly graded sand. Preliminary tests were carried out to determine the grading, Optimum Moisture Content (OMC) and Maximum Dry Density (MDD) of the sand. Initial cement consumption test was done to determine a constant weight of cement required for just the binding effect on the materials. The unconfined compressive strength, shear box, permeability and consolidation tests were performed on the treated soil specimens at various percentages of EPS. The sand-EPS-cement composite showed an increase in unconfined compressive strength and shear strength with the maximum at 0.5% EPS. The permeability of the composite decreased while there was a minimal increase in settlement with increasing EPS content.
- ItemHousehold drinking water characteristics in a peri-urban community: the case of Kifumbira Zone, Kampala, Uganda(35th WEDC International Conference, Loughborough, UK, 2011) Nabasirye, L.; Kulabako, R.; Atukunda, V.; Wozei, Eleanor; Kinobe, Joel; Okurut, Kennan; Arinaitwe, D.A study to determine the drinking water quality improvement practises at household level was undertaken in Kifumbira Zone, a Kampala peri-urban area, Uganda. The socio-economic conditions of 150 households were identified using questionnaires and in-depth interviews. Solar water disinfection (SODIS) was introduced to 10 households and water from their boiled drinking water and SODIS treated water was monitored for three months. The social survey indicated that boiling was the most common method applied to improve the drinking water quality – mainly using charcoal and electricity. 65% of the respondent households boiled their drinking water, while the rest consumed it unboiled due to the high cost of charcoal. The raw water sources exhibited microbiological contamination as evidenced by the presence of thermotolerant coliforms and high risk scores on the sanitary inspections conducted. There was a statistically significant difference (p<0.05; n=15) in the mean count of thermotolerant coliforms for boiled and SODIS treated water.
- ItemIssues of Adoption: Can Health Services Designed for Developed Countries be adopted in Developing Countries?(Proceedings of the Tenth International Network Conference (INC2014), 2014-07) Ssembatya, Richard; Zawedde, SylviaElectronic health record (EHR) systems are a popular mechanism for accessing health records in the developed world and have contributed towards improved and cost-effective health care management. However, the development of appropriate and scalable EHR systems in developing countries has been difficult to achieve because of certain limitations inherent in the technological infrastructure. For instance, bandwidth limitations and power outages make it difficult to guarantee dependability in terms of accessibility to the data. This paper presents a comparative study of 19 EHR systems in terms of the security and usability of these systems within the context of the developing world. The evaluation is based on a number of dimensions such as development environment, system platform, type and access control standards found in the National Institute for Standard and Technology (NIST) and Certification Commission for Health Information Technology (CCHIT). Our research indicates that all the systems evaluated require online access control decisions. Access to data on a central server is controlled by a mechanism that verifies/authenticates users or parties wanting to view/modify/edit patient records. However, solely relying on an online access control system is limiting, particularly in developing countries where access to the server can be disrupted by a number of disastrous events. Additionally, literature also reveals that all the evaluated tools were developed with the user contexts in the developed World and therefore do not represent the needs of the patients and medical practitioners in the developing countries.
- ItemMapping the informal public transport network in Kampala with smartphones: making sense of an organically evolved chaotic system in an emerging city in sub-Saharan Africa(35th Southern African Transport Conference, 2016) Ndibatya, Innocent; Booysen, M.J.; Coetzee, JIn cities in the emerging world, public transport networks are governed by a large number of agents, each with their own agendas, priorities, incentives and resources, interacting nonlinearly through complex feedback loops. The transport system in these cities have developed into a semi-chaotic self-organizing structure with seemingly unpredictable behaviour to an outside observer. This is due to user agent actions by passengers, independent determination of operating plans and practices by transport operators, and a managing authority exhibiting a lack of will (both political and institutional), to implement adequate control measures to provide regulation and management of these systems. Based on the problems that face transport systems in developing cities and public transport in particular, this paper reports on an attempt to understand the supply of public transport in the Kampala area in a novel manner. We describe a mapping approach using a custom-developed smartphone application which was used to quickly and accurately capture informal transport systems for analysis and study of urban mobility where no dependable data was currently available. Secondly, based on the data created by the study project, to provide insights into the routes, operations, and characteristics of the minibus taxi network which convey the majority of Kampala’s travelers. Our hypothesis is that by understanding the network in geospatial terms, we will be able to create benefits for all role-players and improve the efficiency and effectiveness of the supply of public transport to more closely match the demand for public transport in an emerging world city.
- ItemModelling of inter-stop minibus taxi movements: Using machine learning and network theory(1st International conference on the use of Mobile ICT in Africa, 2014) Ndibatya, Innocent; Booysen, M.J.Minibus taxis provide affordable alternative transport for the majority of urban working population in Sub-Saharan Africa. Often, these taxis do not follow predefined routes in their endeavours to look for passengers. Frequently, they stop by roadsides to pick up passengers and sometimes go off the main route in an attempt to fill the taxi with passengers to make the trip profitable. In addition, the destinations are changed from time to time depending on the driver. This uncoordinated movement creates a web of confusion to would-be passengers. The key aspects that are not clear to the passengers include; where to get a taxi, the waiting time and the travel time to the destination. These conditions leave taxi passengers at a very big disadvantage. In this research, we applied the concepts of machine learning and network theory to model the movements of taxis between stops. The model can be used to compute the waiting times at the stops and the travel times to a specified destination. Twelve minibus taxis were tracked for 6 months. Density-based clustering was used to discover the formal and informal taxi stops, which were modelled into a flow network with the significant stops as nodes and the frequency of departures between nodes as edges representing the strength of connectivity. A data driven model was developed. From the model, we can predict the time a passenger will have to wait at a stop in order to get a taxi and the trip duration
- ItemOn the challenge of adopting standard EHR systems in developing countries(Association for Computing Machinery (ACM), 2013) Ssembatya, Richard; Kayem, Anne V.D.M.; Mardsen, GaryElectronic health record (EHR) systems are a popular mechanism for accessing health records in the developed world and have contributed towards improved and cost-effective health care management. However, the development of appropriate and scalable EHR systems in developing countries has been difficult to achieve because of certain limitations inherent in the technological infrastructure. In this paper, we present a comparative study of 19 EHR systems in terms of the security and usability of these systems within the context of the developing world. Our aim was to investigate whether online health services designed for developed countries can be adopted for EHR systems in developing countries. The investigation was based on a number of dimensions such as development environment, system platform, type and access control standards found in the National Institute for Standard and Technology (NIST) and Certification Commission for Health Information Technology (CCHIT). Our research indicates that all the systems evaluated require online access control decisions. Solely relying on an online access control system is limiting, particularly in developing countries where access to the server can be disrupted by a number of disastrous events.
- ItemSecure and efficient mobile personal data sharing in resource constrained environments(IEEE 29th International Conference on Advanced Information Networking and Applications Workshop (WAINA), 2015) Ssembatya, Richard; Kayem, Anne V.D.M.Although personal health record (PHR) systems are widely used in the developed world, little has been done to explore the utility of these PHR systems in the developing world. One of the key reasons behind this is the fact that a lot of areas in the developing world suffer from technological impediments that are a result of poor infrastructure, low literacy, intermittent power connectivity, and unstable bandwidth connectivity. In technological resource constrained environments such as these, deploying standard PHR systems is challenging and so it makes sense to redesign these systems to cope with the environmental limitations in order to offer users a usable and reliable platform. Furthermore, healthcare data is inherently privacy and security sensitive so, in re-designing the PHR system the security and privacy requirements need also be taken into consideration. The idea in this case, is to opt for security mechanisms that offer the same levels of security as is the case in the standard PHR systems that are used in the developed world, but that are also lightweight in terms of performance and storage overhead. In this paper, based on the observation that mobile phone use is widely proliferated in developing countries, we propose an access control framework supported by identity-based encryption for a secure Mobile-PHR system. Results from our prototype evaluation (laboratory and field studies) indicate that the proposed IBE scheme effectively secures PHRs beyond the healthcare provider's security domain and is efficient performance-wise.
- ItemTransforming Paratransit in Africa's congested Cities: An ICT- enabled Integrated Demand Responsive Transport (iDRT) approach(IST-Africa 2020 Conference Proceedings Miriam Cunningham and Paul Cunningham (Eds) IST-Africa Institute and IIMC, 2020) Ndibatya, Innocent; Booysen, M.J.Developing cities in Africa and the Global South are grappling with the problem of inadequate public transport provision. The informal privately-run paratransit system consisting of mini- and micro-buses, shared taxis (jitneys), motorcycle and bicycle taxis has seen substantial growth since the early nineties. This loosely-regulated transport system is associated with many challenges that include congestion, high crash rates, high levels of noise and air pollution. In this paper we describe the origin and current status of this structurally unique paratransit system. We then reviewed the transport master plans of four East African cities (Dar es Salaam, Kampala, Kigali, and Nairobi) and identify remaining planning gaps. We found that all the four cities reviewed lacked satisfactory plans for multi-modal public transport integration, demand responsiveness, and ICT integration which are essential to every modern and efficient public transport system. We then proposed a conceptual organised public transport system (ICT-enabled iDRT). We described how it could be adapted for a highly congested city like Kampala in order transform its existing chaotic paratransit system into an efficient public transport system that could make commuters happier and safer, reduce costs and considerably reduce pollution
- ItemUnderstanding ICT adoption amongst SMEs in Uganda: Towards a participatory design model to enhance technology diffusion(African Journal of Science, Technology, Innovation and Development, 2021-01-19) Kyakulumbye, Stephen; Pather, ShaunPolicy statements by the United Nations, the African Union and most African countries boldly pronounce on the anticipated benefits of the internetworked world and associated ICT to society in general and to the world of business specifically. In terms of the latter, Small and Medium Enterprises (SMEs) are recognized as being critical to the growth of developing economies. There is consensus that this sector has considerable potential for improved business outcomes through the harnessing of Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs). However, a problem of low adoption of ICT in this sector still prevails in Africa and there is a gap in our understanding of the reasons for this. In light of this problem, this paper reports on a survey of Ugandan SME owners in which their ICT pre-usage beliefs and attitudes are explored. The study identified four pre-use factors that are correlated with ICT use. The pre-usage beliefs which significantly influence decisions to adopt and use ICT include Benefit expectation, ICT learnability, User-confidence, and User-friendliness. These are found to be key determinants of ICT adoption. ICT support and ease-of-use on the other hand were factors that did not correlate with decisions to use ICT. However, it is found that there is a low predictive capability (17.7%) of pre-usage beliefs and attitudes in respect of prior use or non-use of ICT among SMEs. As such, this study found that other contextual factors constitute a greater (82.3%) predictive percentage. In light of this, the paper concludes by recommending an ICT participatory design process to mitigate ICT pre-use scepticism among SMEs owners.
- ItemUse of Crushed Concrete Aggregate Waste in Stabilization of Clayey Soils for Sub Base Pavement Construction(9th South African Young Geotechnical Engineers Conference, 13, 14 & 15 September 2017, 2017) Kashoborozi, O.; Aturinda, E.; Jjuuko, S.; Kalumba, D.The research aimed at stabilizing lateritic soils, using crushed concrete aggregates from demolished buildings, foundations, roads and other structures, for use as sub-base for a paved road. Lateritic soils were sampled along the Mukono-Jinja Highway from a borrow pit owned by Stirling Company LTD. Crushed concrete aggregate wastes were fairly angular and strong as they showed comparative values to the fresh aggregates as earlier researched. The lateritic soils were blended with different percentages of waste aggregates 0%, 30%, 40% and 50%, chosen basing on previous studies. The study looked at properties such as grading and flakiness of the waste aggregates, grading, atterberg limits, Optimum Moisture Content, Maximum Dry Density and 4 day soaked California Bearing Ratio for the stabilized and un-stabilized material. Mix designs with 40 % and 50 % of the waste aggregates were considered suitable for use as sub base material. They had CBR of 46 and 59, respectively, at 95 % relative compaction and PI values of 13.64 and 11.40. These met the specified standards of a CBR equal or greater than 45 and PI equal or less than 14 according to the general specifications of Ministry of Works, Housing and Communications (2004).
- ItemUse of Lime Piles as an Alternative Method for Stabilisation of Road Embankments(9th South African Young Geotechnical Engineers Conference, 2017) Nakyeyune, J. R.; Bamwesigye, S.; Jjuuko, S.; Kalumba, D.The durability and performance of an embankment depends on its stability. Several options are available for controlling stability and settlement problems associated with embankment slopes. One of them involves using stabilising agents which are suitable for the existing embankment. This research focused on improving the engineering properties of clay soil insitu by using lime pile technique. The clay soil was obtained from a failed embankment along Kamwenge – Fort portal road, chainage 18 + 900. Preliminary tests were carried out to determine if the soil required stabilisation. It had a high liquid limit of 58.6%, plastic limit 26.5% and plasticity index of 32.1. It was classified as CH using the Unified Soil Classification System. Various tests were carried out, for curing days of 14, 21 and 28, to investigate the effect on the engineering properties of the soil. Results showed an increase in Maximum Dry Density, shear strength and a decrease in Optimum Moisture Content and plasticity index hence improved soil properties for embankment slope stability.
- ItemUsing particpatory design technique in the design of the mobile phone-based health application for patients: a case from Uganda(2018 International Conference on Intelligent and Innovative Computing Applications (ICONIC), 2018) Ssembatya, RichardMobile health represents a relatively new trend in the field of health and involves the use of mobile devices to support healthcare. Despite this, there are still open challenges with respect to design, functionality and implementation aspects. The aim of this paper is to illustrate how to involve patients in the design and testing of the mobile phone-based Personal Health Record (PHR) system called M-Health App, and report our two-hour participatory design sessions with patients at Allan Galpin Health Centre - Uganda. The paper further presents insightful results from our formative evaluations, which will be used in the further implementation of M-Health App.