Theses from other institutions by UCU staff members
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- ItemAntecedents and outcomes of employee engagement in soft drink industry in Uganda(2015) Owor, Joseph JakisaThis study sought to establish the relationship between antecedents and outcomes of employee engagement in the soft drink industry in Uganda. The specific objectives of this study were (1) to ascertain the relationship between engagement antecedents and employee engagement; (2) to determine the relationship between employee engagement and the work outcomes; (3) to establish whether after controlling for the antecedents of engagement, employee engagement will predict unique variance in work outcomes. Adopting a pragmatic philosophy with a sequential mixed methods strategy starting with quantitative cross-sectional survey design (N = 210) followed by key informant interviews with managers the researcher examined the relationship between nine antecedents, employee engagement and four outcomes - job satisfaction, organizational commitment, OCB and turnover intent. Self-administered Questionnaire of four scales were administered to sampled employees of soft drink industry Kampala, Mukono and Buikwe districts of Uganda. Hypotheses were tested through correlation and hierarchical regression analysis techniques. All the nine antecedent variables studied were significantly correlated with employee engagement and employee engagement was significantly correlated with job satisfaction, organizational commitment, OCB and turnover intention. For the job satisfaction model, the hierarchical regression analysis results suggested that employees who experienced a high degree of role clarity, high degree of compensation fairness, and high opportunities for development, also reported being more likely to be satisfied with their place of employment. For the organizational commitment model, the hierarchical regression analysis results shows that three antecedent variables demonstrated a significant relation with organizational commitment, suggesting that employees who experienced a high degree of role clarity, high degree of job security, and high opportunities for development, also reported being more likely to be committed to their organization. For the OCB model, the hierarchical regression analysis results shows that five antecedent variables demonstrated a significant relation with OCB - role clarity, collaboration, job security, compensation fairness, and development. For the turnover intent model, the hierarchical regression analysis found the significant antecedents to be collaboration, social support, reward/recognition, compensation fairness and development. This research has validated and extended the engagement model and social exchange theory in the Uganda context. The only antecedent that is significant in all the four outcome models is development. The recommendation is that for businesses to improve their employee outcomes (job satisfaction, organizational commitment, OCB and reduction of turnover intent) they should develop and nurture strategies for improvement of the significant antecedents and employee engagement by concentrating on employee development, compensation fairness, role clarity, job security, collaboration and organizational support. Amazingly, reward/recognition as well as job design characteristics and material resources were found to be insignificant in the outcome models.
- ItemAssessing the Community-led Total Sanitation Approach in achieving Open Defecation Free Status among residents of Katikamu Sub-county, Luweero District(2016-11) Namyalo, JosephineBackground: Open defecation can lead to public health problems most especially in areas where people defecate openly in bushes, gardens, rivers and other water bodies. Nonetheless, even with the availability of toilets, people still need to be convinced to desist from open defecation and use toilets. Therefore, the need for behavior change is critical in addition to the provision of toilets; this has been attempted through the use of programs like the Community-Led Total Sanitation (CLTS). Objective: The purpose of this study was to assess the contribution of the community led total sanitation approach in achieving open defecation free status among residents of Katikamu Sub County - Luwero district Methods: This was a mixed methods cross sectional study. Both qualitative and quantitative data was collected for this study. Simple random sampling was used to sample out seven of the nine present parishes. In each of the sampled parishes cluster sampling was used to map out the parishes; in this procedure the parishes were clustered into rural parishes and urban parishes. Systematic sampling was used to select households with the eligible respondent who was a household head. Structured interviews were conducted to collect quantitative data from the respondents. Focus group discussions were conducted in this study in order to triangulate it (have more than one method and therefore type of data to rely on) in order to achieve higher reliability of the results. The quantified data was then transferred to Statistical Package of Social sciences (SPSS) computer package for data analysis. Qualitative data was analyzed using content analysis Results: When asked whether the household of or any of his house hold members with the exemption of infants had eased themselves in a place other than a latrine or toilet, more than three quarters of them denied this occurrence 327(85.2%). More than half of the respondents 245(63%) reported that a member of the CLTS program team had come around their area to check on the condition of latrines before the CLTS sessions started. Majority of the respondents noted that their household members were involved in the CLTS programme (72.1%), that the CLTS facilitation had helped them in realizing the importance of having a latrine 334 (87%). The importance of CLTS in having an ODF household was shown by the CLTS facilitators to the respondents according to 325 (84.6%) of them and lastly, it was also reported that the local authorities in Katikamu had been supportive all through the CLTS process (88.3%). Local resources for construction of latrines were possessed by the majority of the respondents (n = 226, 58.9%). For the respondents who owned latrines, resources for the maintenance of those latrines were owned by the vast majority of them (n = 295, 84.8%). Man power for pit latrine construction was also reported to be available by most of the respondents (n = 240, 62.5%). Resources for pit latrine construction and maintenance did not have a statistically significant relationship with open defecation status in Luwero district (p<0.05). Seven CLTS activities had statistically significant contributions to the open defecation status of residents in Katikamu Sub County. These were whether anyone came around to check on the condition of latrines before the CLT sessions started (X2 = 8.784, p = 0.000), whether CLTS facilitation helped in realizing the importance of having a latrine among the respondents (X2 = 5.528, p = 0.019), whether was easy to attend CLTS follow up sessions (X2 = 17.390, p = 0.000), the Officials who did the CLTS follow-up (X2 = 16.757, p = 0.000), whether follow up was done on the outcome of CLTS (X2 = 28.959, p = 0.000), whether the Community was declared ODF (X2 =3.859 , p = 0.049), and whether the respondents felt shame and disgust during the triggering sessions (X2 = 15.417, p = 0.000). Respondents in areas where someone came around to check on the condition of latrines before the CLTS sessions started were less likely to practice OD (OR = 0.362). This was the same for Individuals who said that CLTS facilitation helped in realizing the importance of having a latrine (OR = 0.540), and those for whom it was easy to attend CLTS follow up sessions (OR = 0.596) Conclusion: Open defecation is low but still existent in about 2 of every ten residents in Katikamu Sub County. The community led total sanitation program is effective in Katikamu Sub County with some minimal gaps in the pre triggering and follow phases. Resources for latrine construction are available; however this does not affect ODF status. The community led total sanitation program activities have a significant effect on the ODF status in Katikamu Sub County.
- ItemBody Wasting Among Tuberculosis Patients in Urban Uganda(Case Western Reserve University, 2010-05) Mupere, EzekielBackground although body wasting is a cardinal feature of tuberculosis, its etiology and management is poorly understood; and its assessment is overlooked in research and in clinical practice. Objective We established whether body wasting modifies survival and body composition changes during and after tuberculosis treatment; whether HIV modifies dietary intake among tuberculosis patients; whether dietary intake differs by wasting and severity of disease status; and whether dietary intake influences body composition. Methods Retrospective cohort and cross-sectional designs were employed. Height-normalized body mass (BMI), fat-free mass (FFMI), and fat mass (FMI) indices and 24-hour dietary intake recall were measured. Results Body wasting was associated with reduced survival and the effect differed by gender. FFMI was found to be a predictor of survival among women whereas BMI was among men. Wasting was associated with substantial linear increase in FFMI, FMI, and BMI during the first three months but the rate of increase differed by gender and not HIV status. Changes in body composition among men were affected by initial FFMI and BMI, whereas among women by FMI. There were minimal changes in body composition after month 3 and during the one year period after month 12 regardless of the initial body composition, gender, and HIV status. Dietary intake in the study population was monotonous, rich in carbohydrates and deficient in nutrients. Dietary intake at the time of diagnosis was influenced by severity of tuberculosis disease, but not HIV status and in the absence of tuberculosis was influenced by gender. Prediction of body composition by energy and protein intake differed by gender. Energy intake was an important predictor of body composition among women whereas appetite was among men. Conclusion Results provide theoretical framework to provide targeted nutritional intervention to patients presenting with wasting and patients of female gender. National programs should integrate nutritional health education in the management of tuberculosis. Nutritional assessment should involve establishment of body composition to identify patients that may be at risk of poor survival. Further evaluation is needed to understand changes in dietary intake overtime and its impact on body composition.
- ItemThe Chemical Composition of Haplochromis spp.(Loughborough University of Technology, 1981) Ssali, William MamiimaThe Haplochromis genus constitutes about 80% by weight of the fish in Lake Victoria yet only small amounts are utilised directly for food. There are over 150 species of Haplochromis, in the lake forming a species flock and any typical catch is made up of a mixture of many species. Morphological resemblance of the species makes identification of individual species very difficult. Little information has been published about the chemical composition of Haplochrornis. The present study provides chemical composition data for lioid. protein and other nutritionally important constituents of Haolochromis as an aid to the processing of the resource and its nutritional evaluation. Four batches of Haplochromis from Lake Victoria were received. The first batch was analysed only for total lipid. Fish from the other three batches, caught over a five month period, were each split into four weight groups. Data were obtained for the weight distribution in the batches, the relationship between weight and length of the fish, weight and maximum depth of the fish and for the proportions of head, gut and headless gutless portions in the different weight groups.
- ItemCommunity Media Narrowcasting In Uganda: An Assessment of Community Audio Towers(University of KwaZulu-Natal, 2016) Semujju, BrianThis thesis is about Community Audio Towers (CATs). CATs are small media platforms that use horn speakers hoisted on a long dry pole, an amplifier and a microphone to communicate daily village events. This study shows that individuals depend more on CATs than other available mainstream channels. The thesis interrogates the level of individual (i.e. villager) dependency on CATs in Ugandan rural and semi-urban communities alongside the other three available platforms in Uganda: radio, television and newspapers. There is a gap in existing literature to explain dependencies in small (alternative) media like CATs. Therefore, the study uses the Media System Dependency (MSD) theory (Ball-Rokeach and DeFleur, 1976), a relevant media theory that explains dependencies on a communication platform similar to this case study. However, since CATs are a community media, they are also theorised in this study within the framework of development communication, which helps the study to argue that CATs are small media platforms that provide local information. However, due to the need to investigate dependencies in CATs, the study‘s main research questions are raised using the MSD theory. The study employs both quantitative and qualitative methods. To investigate the level of individual dependency on CATs, a survey was done among 100 respondents from two districts in Uganda (50 respondents from each district). Data was collected in the rural Masaka district and in the semi-urban Mukono district. Additionally, to understand how CATs are sustained, how they attract the community members, and their position in the national communication infrastructure, ten key informant interviews were conducted with various CATs stakeholders like: the State Minister for ICT, technical experts at Uganda Communications Commission, District information and Development officers, local council chairmen and CATs announcers. The study found that the level of individual dependency on CATs is higher than the individual dependency on any other mass communication platform accessed by the sample communities. CATs appear to attract the audience through localising the processes of information gathering, processing and dissemination. These processes are affordable and done by the locals themselves, something that increases attention whenever the community requires a channel to communicate an issue. The challenges include noise, lack of a licence or regulation, and weather variations that disturb sound waves. The thesis concludes by introducing Small Media System Dependency (SMSD) relations to explain dependency relations in small/alternative media platforms.
- ItemConditional inference(1984-08) Senyonyi, John M.Conditional inference is a branch of statistical inference in which observed data is reduced using either sufficient or ancillary statistics. This often simplifies inference about the parameters. In comparison to full likelihood methods, conditional inference theory’s performance still needs validating in many areas. Some of these are the concern of this thesis. While the definition of an ancillary statistic in single parameter models is unequivocal, the presence of accessory (or nuisance) parameters in a model presents problems in defining an ancillary statistic. Statistical literature abounds with definitions of ancillarity in this case. Some of the commonest and most useful of these are discussed and shown to be interrelated. This facilitates the choice of the strongest eligible ancillary in a problem, i.e. that which offers the biggest reduction of the sample space. The Pitman-Morgan test for variance ratios in bivariate normal populations with unknown correlation coefficient is shown to be a conditional test. We condition on sufficient statistics for the accessory parameters to eliminate them. The test statistic is then derived as an ancillary statistic for the accessory parameters. When a probability model depends on a number of accessory parameters which increases with the sample size, estimation methods based on the full likelihood will often be inconsistent. Using a partial likelihood instead has been suggested. Local maximum partial likelihood estimators are shown to exist, and to be consistent and asymptotically normal under mild conditions. These results also cover conditional and marginal likelihoods, thus considerably strengthening earlier results in this area. In planning statistical inferences, it is useful to choose a sampling scheme which provides only the essential data to our inferences. Jagers’ lemma proposes very general conditions under which maximum likelihood estimation from a subset of the data is identical with that from the full data. However, the lemma is incorrect as given. We show that an additional sufficiency condition repairs the lemma. It is further shown that this lemma cannot be extended to general exponential families.
- ItemThe Cultural Divide: traditional cultural expressions and the entertainment industry in developing economies.(2014) Kakooza, Anthony C.K.This study addresses a number of pertinent issues concerning Traditional Cultural Expressions (TCEs), specifically in relation to what they are and the dilemma surrounding ownership vis-à-vis custodianship in an environment that is biased towards protection of Intellectual Property Rights. The present inadequate legal recognition and, ultimately, insufficient international recognition and protection of TCEs has orchestrated the misappropriation of such works for the benefit of the entertainment industry and other economic sectors as well. The biggest underlying issue therefore is – whether TCEs should be recognized within the domain of Intellectual Property Rights. The fact that TCEs are considered as part of the public domain raises a key issues as to how they can be protected so as to serve the interests of ethnic communities, States, as well as the users of the TCEs. The claim made in this study is that because of the communal nature of ownership and difficulty in defining TCEs, this has contributed to their abuse by all users. The current origin-based I.P regimes are considered as inadequate in protecting TCEs which are mainly characterized by communal ownership and absence of fixation. This therefore calls for a specific sui generis regulatory mechanism that can address the interests of all stakeholders with a view of effective utilization of TCEs towards socio-economic development. On the regulatory scene, the study looks at International Instruments, Regional Treaties as well as select National Laws from Africa in evaluating the current adequacy of protection offered to TCEs. In this evaluation, it points out key principles that amount to protection of TCEs and scrutinizes their inclusiveness in the current regulatory mechanisms. The study also relies on multiple case studies to show the extent of TCE appropriation in different parts of the world. It brings in empirical findings drawn from field research, mainly in Uganda, to highlight stakeholder perspectives on various matters pertaining to the use of TCEs and how they can be used to generate socio-economic development. These findings, supported by theoretical arguments derived from secondary data, support the general claim made in this research over the need for a sui generis regulatory system over TCEs. Some of the fundamental concerns for TCE Custodians include preservation of their cultural values in the TCEs; entitlement to part of the royalties generated from usage; and the right of attribution. As such, the general recommendation presented for the realization of effective TCE usage, is an equal-based partnership between TCE Custodians and State Agencies. Under this arrangement, the right of self-determination by the Custodians is balanced out with State involvement in management and enforcement of TCE property rights. It is generally hoped that this study can be used as an impetus for further research in the development of sui generis policy and regulatory frameworks in the appreciation of Traditional Cultural Expressions in developing economies.
- ItemDeterminants of Demand for Tradable Commodities in a Small Open Economy: a Case of Diesel in Uganda(Makerere University, 2011-12) Mukisa, Simon Peter TurkerIn this research paper, attempts are made to identify determinants of demand for diesel in Uganda. The study estimates diesel demand using time series data starting from 1981 to 2010. The primary objective of this study is to investigate the determinants of demand for diesel in Uganda. In addition it estimates demand elasticity for diesel in Uganda using time series econometric techniques. Accordingly, the study used a double logarithm model to investigate this issue together with a list of tools of analysis such as vectors error correction model, which uses the impulse response function and variance decomposition model to show the response of variables to shocks. The study also investigated both short run and long run elasticities for per capital income and price. The results from the study identified only four major variables that were the major drivers of demand and these include; price of diesel, number of diesel consuming vehicles, real foreign exchange rate and real price of diesel. These factors were responsible for high demand in the long run and in short run apart from the number of diesel consuming vehicles which was only significant in the long run. The results from co integration revealed a maximum of only six co integrating equations and the error correction models showed time of adjustment of variables to given shocks. Real per capita income and real price of diesel could stabilize with given shocks in the long run. The price elasticity of demand and income elasticity of demand were in contrary with expected signs.
- ItemDeveloping library products and services to support blended learning at Uganda Christian University and its affiliated campuses(School of information technology, University of Pretoria, 2015-08) Galinnya, StephanasBlended learning (also referred to as online learning) support at Uganda Christian University (UCU) is still at its initial stages at both the Main Campus and Affiliated Campuses. Blended learning is the combination of different training media such as technologies, activities and types of events which are used to create an optimum training program for a specific audience (Bersin, 2004). Blended learning offers use of multiple teaching styles (that is lectures, action learning activities and demonstrations within the lecture room) to retain the students’ attention by accommodating the differing learning styles and thereby enhancing the learning experience of the students (Garrison and Kanuka, 2004). Prior to this research the library supported blended learning by providing a link to the library platform which currently houses thousands of online journals and a few e-books on different databases such as; AGORA, Wiley Inter Science, Oxford University Press, Cambridge Journals Online, Oxford university scholarship, HINARI, Emerald, OARE, JSTOR and many others which students and staff can access and retrieve for future reference with the provision of getting a print copy (UCU, 2013a). In an effort to better support blended learning this study attempted provide answers to the following research question: What online support services should be developed by the University Library in order to optimise the online component of blended learning initiatives at UCU? Several sub-questions were used to gain full understanding of the requirements for online support services. These are: What is blended learning and how does it differ from e-Learning? What is UCU’s strategy regarding the implementation of blended learning? What is the current state of online learning support services provided by UCU library and its Affiliated Campuses? Is there a need for expanding the services at UCU? What further services could UCU and the libraries of its Affiliated Campuses develop to support online learning? What are the benefits and the challenges of online learning support services be to library patrons at UCU and its Affiliated Campuses? And how can the library strategise to overcome challenges and sustain online learning support services? The methodology used to carry out the study focused on explaining the systematic ways used to solve the research problem of the study. The discussion under methodology covered the research design, research approach and the research strategies which were used to guide the study in exploring issues of developing the library services and products to support blended learning at UCU Main Campus and Affiliated Campuses. The chapter also discussed case study design, population of study, sampling method, data collection methods, data collection instruments, data quality control, data analysis; and ethical issues. This chapter ends with conclusion and gave an introduction to chapter four The key findings resulted from the empirical study described in the methodology, was divided into two parts. The first part presents the findings captured, and the second discusses the findings against the backdrop of the literature review reported in Chapter 2. The researcher administered both questionnaires and interviews to collect data. The questionnaires resulted in feedback from 30 respondents. 20 of which were academic staff, and 10 librarians based at UCU Hamu Mukasa Library. This was with an aim of capturing new ideas about developing library products and services to support blended learning at UCU, and comparing them. The interviews were scheduled and administered to 20 Heads of Departments. They were selected as key respondents because of their roles in decisions making and planning for the University. The findings were presented and discussed according to specific themes. The themes presented and discussed the description of respondents, technologies associated with online instructions, familiarity and access to technology to operate blended learning, and the proposed solutions to address the challenges faced. The study concluded with specific research objectives designed within the context of blended learning to; identify UCU’s strategy regarding the implementation of blended learning, explore the current state of online learning support services provided by UCU library and its Affiliated Campuses, identify the benefits and the challenges of online learning support services to the library patrons at UCU and its Affiliated Campuses, and formulate strategies to overcome challenges and sustain online learning support services. All these objectives were successfully achieved. The study recommended that there should be skills trainings, support, technology, pedagogy and human factor.
- ItemThe development of Neo-traditional religion: The Baganda experience.(University of Aberdeen, Scotland, 1980) Bukenya, Dunstan K.Kiganda traditional religious experience has no name because the experience is far too pervasive to be narrowed down to a specific system which could be defined separately from the rest of life experiences. In this dissertation the author explores the development of the Baganda neo-traditional religious experience in Central Uganda. The author high lights the on-going historical process of development change and adaptation in Kiganda religion both in its pre-alien religious contact and in its present state. The author affirms that this experience has clearly developed into a newness in the continued Kiganda religious beliefs and practices due to alien contact. The author asserts that the Christian and colonial political revolutions of the 1890s and 1900 respectively left Kiganda religion publicly powerless though of course not dead. The author recommends the traditionalization of Christian symbols, establishment of neo-traditional nationalistic movements and Luganda language movement.
- ItemEarly childhood care and education in Uganda: the challenges and possibilities for achieving quality and accessible provision(The University of Edinburgh, 2009) Kisitu, WinifredThe importance of Early Childhood Care and Education (ECCE) as a prerequisite for national development has been emphasized in recent years by developing countries and by donor agencies. Research findings point to the benefits children, as well as nations, derive from ECCE provision. For children, these benefits include school readiness; and for nations, benefits address the reduction of social inequality, possibilities for increased tax revenue through eventual improved employment prospects, and development of societal values. In 1990 at Jomtien in Thailand, 155 nations of the world agreed on a joint plan of action to fulfill six Education For All goals. The first goal required nations to work towards the expansion and improvement of comprehensive ECCE by the year 2015. The responsibility of poor countries was to make necessary budget allocations and policy commitments; rich countries were to provide both intellectual and financial support. Whilst some progress has been made, many developing countries, especially in Sub-Saharan Africa, are still at risk of not achieving EFA by 2015. Uganda is one country where there are difficulties in attaining EFA and ECCE in particular. This has been exacerbated by the prevailing economic, social, geographical, and cultural differences, as well as general beliefs about ECCE. This study investigates the present quality and accessibility in ECCE provision in Uganda. It explores the extent to which Uganda has expanded and improved ECCE and raises the key question as to why even with international donor support and government commitment to institutional changes, ECCE is an area of education still riven with problems. The study uses participant observation, semi-structured interviews, and photography in six selected schools in three Districts. Research findings reveal that the majority of children are not accessing ECCE provision, while many of those that do are being educated in environments not conducive to their learning and development. Findings show that there are a number of factors both internal and external to Uganda that impact upon efforts to fulfil the commitment made at Jomtien in 1990. This research concludes that first and foremost, there should be a national, ‘Ugandan’ approach to and policies about ECCE. Rather than being led by international pressure and policies, approaches to improving quality and accessibility in ECCE provision should be refocused away from ‘top-heavy’, ‘lop-sided’ approaches to a more pre-school-level focused approach. This will help in establishing and addressing culturally relevant and economically achievable quality targets. Secondly, there is need for public awareness of the importance of ECCE. This will not only give rise to increased community participation in the establishment of community-based ECCE centres, but also the involvement of stakeholders in the identification and implementation of solutions to the problems facing ECCE. And finally, rather than looking to the West for funding, Uganda should develop in-country funding strategies from both public and private sources. This will help to remove the negative impact of ‘modalities’, these often being required by external donor funding. In-country funding sources will as a result give Uganda room to ‘manoeuvre’ when planning for ECCE.
- ItemEffect of crop sanitation on banana weevil Cosmopolites sordidus (Germar) populations and associated damage(Wageningen University and Research Centre, the Netherlands, 2003) Masanza, MichaelThe banana weevil, Cosmopolites sordidus (Germar) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) is a serious pest of bananas. However, its ecology is not well elucidated especially in East Africa where plantations are up to 50 years old and are under various management and cropping systems. No single satisfactory control strategy has been found. Detailed information on C. sordidus biology and ecology is needed to explain the population dynamics of this pest in order to develop a comprehensive package for the small-scale farmer to alleviate the pest problem. Cultural control forms the first line of defence in pest control. For instance, removal of crop residues after harvest by chopping is a widely recommended cultural strategy for C. sordidus control. However, the actual effect of these practices on the insect's population dynamics is not clear. This study was aimed at investigating the effect of crop sanitation on population dynamics of C. sordidus and its associated damage. Laboratory and field studies on the biology and ecology of this pest on crop residues were conducted in Uganda. We found that corms are most attractive to the weevils than any other type of crop residues. Oviposition occurred on residues up to 120 days after harvest, but mainly on freshly harvested residues up to 30 days, implying that residues should be left up to a month before destroying them. In the study on survivorship of C. sordidus in crop residues, our results revealed that the pest successfully completes its life cycle within crop residues and emerging adults from different aged residues are equally fit. As crop residues can be a source of C. sordidus infestation to the standing crop, they need to be destroyed. There is a general belief that covering banana stumps after harvest helps reduce weevils in banana farms. However, there was no data available to prove that this practice is useful. Moreover, the real effect of covering stumps remained unknown. Our studies reveal that covering banana stumps after harvest reduces oviposition on them in the wet season, but encourages oviposition in the dry season. Therefore, farmers may cover the stumps in the wet but not in the dry season. Also, our studies suggest that covering all stumps in the wet season may encourage C. sordidus to oviposit on the crop. Therefore, some residues should be left in the inter-mat alleys to attract weevils away from the crop. The residues can then be destroyed after three to four weeks. Removal and chopping crop residues in farmers' fields helped to keep C. sordidus populations and damage lower than when the residues were left to accumulate. In comparison, removal of all residues in young closed banana plots reduced C. sordidus populations but increased damage on growing plants and reduced the levels of natural enemies. The implications of these results on the role of crop sanitation in the integrated management of C. sordidus are discussed.
- ItemEffects of repetitive DNA and epigenetics on human genome regulation(Georgia Institute of Technology, 2013-07) Jjingo, DaudiThe highly developed and specialized anatomical and physiological characteristics observed for eukaryotes in general and mammals in particular are underwritten by an elaborate and intricate process of genome regulation. This precise control of the location, timing and amplitude of gene expression is achieved by a variety of genetic and epigenetic tools and mechanisms. Such tools include cis- and trans- transcriptional regulation, epigenetic marks and chromosomal conformation in the nucleus [78, 79]. While all these regulatory mechanisms have been extensively studied, our understanding of the complex and diverse associations between various epigenetic marks and genetic elements with genome regulatory systems has remained incomplete. However, the last few years have seen a profound development in two areas that have significantly improved the depth and breadth to which their functions and relationships can be understood; 1) Next generation sequencing (NGS) and 2) its application in the genome-wide profiling of multiple DNA elements and functional factors. These include suites of histone modifications, transcription factors, DNA methylations and DNAse hypersensitive sites in various mammalian tissues by the ENCODE consortium and other research laboratories. The objective of this thesis has been to apply bioinformatic computational and statistical tools to analyze and interpret various recent high throughput datasets from a combination of Next generation sequencing and Chromatin immune precipitation (ChIP-seq ) experiments. These datasets have been analyzed to further our understanding of the dynamics of gene regulation in humans particularly as it relates to repetitive DNA, cis-regulation and DNA methylation. The thesis thus resides at the intersection of three major areas in the overarching domain of human genome regulation; transposable elements, cis-regulatory elements and epigenetics. It explores how those three aspects of regulation relate with gene expression and the functional implications of those interactions. From this analysis of high throughput datasets, the thesis provides new insights into; 1) the relationship between the transposable element environment of human genes and their expression, 2) the role of mammalian-wide interspersed repeats (MIRs) in the function of human enhancers and enhancement of tissue-specific functions, 3) the existence and function of composite cis-regulatory elements and 4) the dynamics and relationship between human gene-body DNA methylation and gene expression. The specific advances of my research in the field of human genome regulation are summarized as follows: Research advance 1: With both TE fractions and GL being highly correlated to gene length, this study evaluated the two parameters together and teased apart their relative contributions to the gene expression parameters of tissue-specificity and expression levels. By showing that GL is strongly correlated with overall expression level but weakly correlated with the breadth of expression, this study elicited evidence for the selection hypothesis  that attributes the compactness of highly expressed genes to selection for economy of transcription as opposed to the genomic design hypothesis . In fact, TE fractions of human genes were shown to be more anti-correlated to gene expression levels, suggesting that TEs, rather than GL might be more important targets of selection for transcriptional economy. Finally, MIRs were found to be the only TEs that positively associate with tissue-specific gene expression. Relevance of TEs environment for gene expression was confirmed and distinct mechanisms by which they may contribute to genome regulation were adduced. Research advance 2: Mammalian-wide interspersed repeats (MIRs), previously shown to be related to tissue-specific gene expression , are shown to execute this function primarily through enhancers. This study found MIRs to be significantly enriched within enhancers and reports many novel MIR-derived enhancers. Indeed, the density of enhancer-MIRs around genes is shown to be significantly related to both their level of expression, their tissue specificity and to be involved in tissue-specific cellular functions. MIRs within enhancers are shown to possess significantly higher numbers of transcriptional factor binding sites (TFBSs) relative to the genomic background, a finding that might explain their co-option into enhancers and thus their longstanding conservation and wide distribution in the mammalian clade. Research advance 3: This research adduced evidence that confirmed previous postulations that distinctions between different classes of cis-regulatory elements may not be definitive and that different elements might share regulatory features and mechanisms. Taking boundary elements and enhancers within the human CD4+ T cells as examples, we identified 174 composite cis-regulatory elements, for which both enhancers and boundary elements are co-located. These composite cis-regulatory elements possess unique chromatin environments and regulatory features and are revealed to facilitate cell-type specific functions. Research advance 4: This research used the approach of a meta-analysis of new high throughput chromatin, methylation and gene expression datasets to address aspects of the long standing DNA methylation paradox . Contrary to previous knowledge [2, 4, 56, 83, 88, 108], it is shown that the relationship between gene-body methylation and gene expression levels is not linear but actually non-monotonic (bell-shaped). These results confirm that gene-body DNA methylation does serve to repress spurious intragenic transcription. However, they also illustrate that role to be only epiphenomenal, with gene-body methylation levels being predominantly determined by the accessibility of the DNA to methylating enzyme complexes rather than by an evolutionary adaptation to minimize the spurious intragenic transcription.
- ItemThe Framing of Homosexuality by Two Ugandan Newspapers: An Analysis of New Vision and Daily Monitor(Centre for Communication, Media and Society University of KwaZulu-Natal, 2017-01) Namusoga, SaraIt is the general view that homosexuality is an issue that both society and the media find controversial. In Uganda, press reports mostly echo the negative attitudes towards homosexuality as demonstrated by the studies about the 2009 anti-homosexuality bill. This thesis addressed itself to the framing of homosexuality in the two Ugandan newspapers of New Vision and Daily Monitor during the period 2007-2011. The purpose of the thesis was to investigate the frames that the two media houses apply when they cover homosexuality issues, as well as to examine the changes and/or consistencies in reporting patterns during this time. The study period encompassed two years prior to the introduction of the 2009 Anti-homosexuality bill, the year of the introduction of the bill, and two year after the introduction of the bill. Specifically, the thesis investigated the frames, tone, story formats, story placement and the sources. A content analysis of New Vision and Daily Monitor was undertaken, and included all items/articles about homosexuality during this period. Framing theory informed this study. The key results indicate that from 2007-2011, the two newspapers rely on the human rights frame, followed by the religion frame, to cover homosexuality. As such, homosexuality is treated was a rights and morality issue, which is consistent with findings from studies in other parts of the world. A negative attitude by the two newspapers towards homosexuality was also observed. It also emerged that the majority of stories were hard news stories, implying that homosexuality issues are covered as routine stories with marginal use of more detailed formats such as features and interviews. Furthermore, the Ugandan perspective was promoted through the reliance on Ugandan sources vis-à-vis foreign sources, by both newspapers. Moreover, the issue was treated as an elite issue, given that most stories were placed in the national pages. By placing the most stories on the national pages, the news reports promoted the elite views and downplayed the views from the peripheral, which are carried in the regional pages. Although some changes were observed in the reporting patterns, the overall observation was that although the two newspapers do not necessarily ignore homosexuality, their coverage was biased and homosexuality was treated negatively regardless of the topic or context. The thesis concluded that the nature of reporting reflected the dominant views of the Ugandan society, which are negative towards homosexuality, making it challenging for homosexuals and their supporters to make their views known through these two media houses, and limiting the views that the audiences have about homosexuality. It is proposed, however, that hope lies in the view that since the political position on homosexuality (especially that of the president) has changed on several occasions, it is only a matter of time before the public view will change and such change reflected in media reports.
- ItemGenetic and Root Growth Studies in Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz): Implications for Breeding(Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences Uppsala, 2006) Kizito, Elizabeth B.Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) is a perennial tropical crop grown for its starchcontaining tuberous roots. It is cultivated mainly by small-scale farmers and consumed daily by an estimated 500 million people. Cassava mosaic disease (CMD) has long been recognized as a major limiting factor to cassava production in Africa and severe epidemics hit Uganda in the late 1920’s and late 1980’s. In spite of its importance as a major food crop it is the least researched major crop and many questions regarding its genetics are still unresolved. This thesis has therefore dealt with studies on: i) the effect of CMD on the genetic diversity of cassava in Uganda, ii) the composition of varieties and the genetic structure within and between varieties on small farms in Uganda, iii) the genetic basis of two agronomic important traits, cyanogenic glucoside potential (CNP) and dry matter content (DMC) in cassava roots, using quantitative trait loci (QTL) mapping and iv) the effect of nutrient availability on the growth and tuber formation. The outcome of these studies is relevant for developing strategies for breeding and gene conservation programmes. CMD did not have a strong selective effect on the genetic diversity of cassava in Uganda in spite of earlier reports on losses of varieties due to the latest CMD epidemic. However, a loss of rare alleles in areas with high CMD incidence in Uganda was found. The composition of varieties differed widely between villages and districts and the genetic variation was surprisingly large within varieties although the variation was larger among varieties. The like-named varieties in different villages were genetically similar, demonstrating farmers’ ability to differentiate and maintain the same variety over large areas. We detected two QTL on two different linkage groups controlling CNP and six QTL on four different linkage groups controlling DMC. One QTL for CNP and one QTL for DMC mapped near each other, suggesting pleiotrophy or linkage of QTL. In the root studies, production of storage roots was found to be regulated by nutrient availability and appeared to be positively affected by a gradually increasing limitation of mineral nutrients during the growth of the plants.
- ItemGenital fistula among Ugandan women: Risk Factors, Treatment Outcomes and Experiences of Patients & Spouses(Karolinska Institutet and Makerere University, 2015) Barageine, Justus KafunjoBackground: An estimated 2-3 million women globally and majorly in sub-Saharan Africa and Asia, suffer from genital fistula with an annual incidence of 50,000-100,000 women. Uganda like other low-income countries is not an exception and has an estimated fistula prevalence of 2%, with western Uganda having the highest prevalence of 4% among females aged 15-49 years. The main cause is prolonged and neglected obstructed labour in more than 90% of the cases. Risk factors for fistula vary from one context to another. The consequences of fistula go beyond the individual woman and affect relatives, spouses and the community. There is limited information on lived experiences among women with fistula, their spouses, relatives and communities. With the global end fistula campaign on course, there is need for quality and evidence-based fistula prevention, treatment and social reintegration. Objective: To determine risk factors for obstetric fistula, compare outcomes of early discharge with catheter versus late discharge after catheter removal, and explore life experiences of fistula patients and their spouses in Uganda. Methods: From 2012 to 2015, we conducted a mixed methods study with four sub studies: A case control study (I), a qualitative study using focus group discussions (FGDs) among women with fistula (II), a qualitative study using in depth interviews with men whose wives had fistula (III) and a randomized controlled open-label non-inferiority trial among women undergoing fistula repair surgery (IV). Four sub studies were conducted in Mulago (II-IV), Hoima (I &III), Kagadi (I) and Kyenjojo (I) hospitals. In the first sub study (I) that was conducted in western Uganda, we compared background characteristics of 140 cases (women with obstetric fistula) and 280 controls (women without fistula). In the second sub study was the Urogenital Fistula Early and Late Discharge (UFEALD) trial (IV) where we assessed the non-inferiority of early discharge (3-5 days) vs. standard 14 days (late discharge) following surgical repair of fistula in respect to proportion of women with repair breakdown between three days and 12 weeks. We pre-set the non-inferiority margin at 10%. A total of 300 patients were block randomized to two equal groups of 150 each and both groups followed up for 12 weeks. The third and the fourth sub studies were exploratory qualitative studies among women seeking treatment for fistula (II) and spouses whose wives had fistula (III) respectively. The qualitative studies were analysed using content analysis (II) and a composite narrative (III). Results: Risk factors for obstetric fistula in western Uganda (I) were: caesarean section (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 13.30, 95% CI = 6.74–26.39), respondent height of 150 cm or less (AOR = 2.63, 95% CI = 1.35–5.26), baby weight of 3.5 kg or more (AOR = 1.52, 95% CI = 1.15–1.99), prolonged labour (AOR= 1.06, 95% CI = 1.04–1.08. Compared to no education, post primary level of education was protective against obstetric fistula (AOR = 0.31, 95% CI= 0.13–0.72). A total of 25% of the fistulas were due to iatrogenic injury during caesarean section. The life experiences of women with fistula (II) were characterized by life changes, challenges and strategies to cope. The women were physically changed and challenged, lived in social deprivation and isolation, were psychologically stigmatized and depressed and their sexual life was no longer joyful. The women used both problem- and emotion focused coping strategies to deal with the challenges. They devised ways to reduce the bad smell of urine in an attempt to avoid any further stigma, rejection and isolation. Amidst coping, they were often left alone and isolated. The women either isolated themselves or were isolated by society, including close relatives and their husbands. Generally women with fistula felt that their marital and sexual rights had been lost. The men’s experiences (III) while living with a wife who had fistula conflicted with Ugandan culture and norms of masculinity. The men’s lives were greatly affected and felt ‘small’. They however, persevered in the relationship sometimes changing lifestyles but also maintaining what they perceived as roles of men in this context as responsible, caring husbands and fathers. Some men married a second wife but generally viewed marriage as a lifetime promise before God, which should not end because of a fistula. Poverty, inherent love, care for children, and social norms in a patriarchal society compelled the men to persevere in their relationship amidst all challenges. Four of the 150 (2・7%) women in the early discharge group had fistula repair breakdown compared to three of the 150 (2%) in the late discharge group (Difference [Δ] = 0・7% [95% CI = -3・4–4・9], p = 0・697). There were no significant differences in any of the secondary outcomes including complications. A total of 138 (92%) in the early versus 134 (89・3%) women in the late discharge groups had fistula closed and were continent and voiding normally day and night) There were no fatal complications. Conclusions: Iatrogenic injury during caesarean section, prolonged labour, big baby (3.5 kg or more), short stature (height 150 cm or less), and low/no education are risk factors for fistula (I). Women' with a fistula are challenged physically, socio-economically, psychologically and sexually. Their life is full of adjustments to cope with the stigma, social isolation, and marital sex challenges. They use both make problem- and emotion-focused coping as they deal with isolation, rejection and stigma associated with fistulas (Paper II). Like women, men whose wives have fistula face challenges as individuals but also as members of a hegemonic masculinized society (III). They portray themselves as responsible men fulfilling their culturally assigned roles as men. They cannot go away from their wives even though they feel challenged socially by the stigma associated but believe marriage is a God given role they must fulfil amidst other factors they advance for remaining with their wives like poverty and raising children. Early discharge with a catheter was non-inferior to the standard 14 days of inpatient care and for stable patients following urogenital fistula repair, we recommend a reduced period of hospital-based care of 3-5 days from the current 14 days (IV).
- ItemIndigenous language programming and citizen participation in Uganda broadcasting : an exploratory study.(2006) Chibita, Monica B.The thesis, Indigenous language programming and citizen participation in Ugandan broadcasting: an exploratory study constitutes an analysis of the significance of policy on indigenous language programming in Uganda's broadcast media. The thesis is conceived broadly within a critical studies' framework. It emphasizes the role of the broadcast media in the public sphere, as well as policy on linguistic diversity in making the public sphere more accessible to the majority of Ugandans. Fundamental assumptions of the thesis are the following: * The imperatives of the market are in tension with the need to preserve a significant amount of indigenous language broadcasting in Uganda's broadcast media for purposes of diversity; * This tension can be discerned in the political-economic environment within which the broadcast media in Uganda have evolved and operate as well as in public debate on indigenous language programming in the broadcast media; * The current state of the media's structure, operation and regulation have their roots in Uganda's political history; and * Policy on the indigenous languages has a bearing on Ugandans' capacity to participate meaningfully in the democratic process via the broadcast media. The thesis documents key social, political and economic factors surrounding policy on indigenous language broadcasting in Uganda using interviews, an analysis of Uganda's political history as well as key legal documents related to diversity and participation. It documents public debate on the significance of language policy for the participation of Ugandans in the democratic process through the broadcast media and examines how changes in the structure and operation of Uganda's broadcast media, especially since the liberalisation of the airwaves in the early 1990s, are perceived by Ugandans to have affected their participation in the democratic process through the media. Finally the thesis makes recommendations for future communication policy with regards to the role of language in enhancing diversity and participation.
- ItemIntersections of Indigenous Knowledge and Place-Based Education: possibilities for new visions of sustainability education in Uganda(University of Tasmania, 2018-06) Kezabu, Kevin LubuulwaThis doctoral research pursued the intersection of Indigenous Knowledge (IK) and place-based education in Ugandan secondary schools. Particular interest was placed on how teachers use place-based education pedagogies to influence their own as well as their learners’ reconnection to their communities, cultures and places towards a more sustainable future. Even though the role of community elders of guardianship and instruction of IK has been weakened by the formal education system (Semali, 1999; Smith & Sobel, 2010), this research also explored how community elders can contribute to place-based education in their communities. In so doing, this research was guided by three questions: 1. How can Indigenous Knowledge, practices and values intersect with place-based education in Ugandan secondary schools? 2. How can teachers use place-based education pedagogies to influence their learners to reconnect to their community/culture and places in Ugandan secondary schools? 3. How can community elders contribute to place-based education in their communities in Uganda? The impetus for this research stemmed from the issue where Uganda’s formal education contributes to the people’s disconnection from their communities and from their cultures. This is primarily due to the examination driven curriculum; the foreign orientation of the formal education system and the subjugation of IK from the curriculum. For example, Uganda is still using the colonial-inherited education system with English as the medium of instruction and assessment. This has left the Indigenous languages on the peripheries of the formal education curriculum with no importance placed on IK. Researchers (see Gruenewald, 2003; Smith & Sobel, 2010; Thiele, 2013) have found alienation of the people from their cultures and places as one of the leading causes of the profound lack of care for the environment. This research employed a Participatory Action Research (PAR) methodology which provided the co-participants (i.e. teachers, elders and community members) with the skills to critically recognize disconnection of the people from their cultures and places because of the colonial formal education system. Since PAR is participatory in nature, it enabled me to work with the co-participants in a collaborative and reciprocal way in and through this research project. In this respect, the co-participants were engaged as full members of the research team and the investigation was based directly on their understanding of their own actions and experiences (Marshall, & Maclntosh, 2007) in the Ugandan formal education setting. Following the planning, action, observation and reflection cycle of PAR, the co-participants planned and utilized three learning activities to integrate IK into the formal education setting. These included learning about the traditional concept of community service; visiting and learning about the sacred places; and learning about the Indigenous plants and their medicinal values. Data collection methods included group discussions, group interviews, sharing of samples of students’ work, sharing of co-participants’ diary entries and listening to the community elders’ personal and historical narratives. In the analysis of the PAR cycles of this project, several themes and ideas became apparent including transformative practice, collective responsibility, kinship with nature, respect of the elders’ voices as voices of the land, diversity and pluralism, and creating a more just and inclusive curriculum. The findings revealed that IK, practices and values were embedded with place-based education in Ugandan secondary schools through the co-participants’ involvement with the students in the IK learning activities. In addition, the Ugandan teachers’ use of place-based education pedagogies influenced learners to reconnect to their community and cultures. This was evident in the teachers’ reports, improved class attendance and improved participation during these place-based lessons. Further, these findings revealed that community elders can contribute in a meaningful way to place-based education in their communities. This was achieved though the sharing of their cultural and historical narratives about sacred places with the teachers and students. In addition, the elders attended participating schools and facilitated the teachers’ and students’ learning about Indigenous plants around the school grounds. The study found that collaboration between teachers, teachers and community elders, as well as between the schools and the communities is key for successful implementation of place-based education in the Ugandan educational setting. Finally, for place-based education to be successful in the Ugandan formal education system, teachers’ participation in the improvement of their own practice as well as the curriculum is vital.
- ItemJoint education provision; a relief or challenge to quality education services in Uganda: a study in Buganda region(Joint education provision; a relief or challenge to quality education services in Uganda: a study in Buganda region, Bergen Norway, 2011) Sempungu, GodfreyThe National Constitution of Uganda clearly underscores the fact that education is a right of every Ugandan. The same document also stipulates the role of the Government and other stakeholders in providing education. It is from this mother document that also the other key providers of education services derive their mandate. In Uganda, providers of education are either private or public. In some cases the government takes over the management and day today running of some schools whose founder body is private. This is mostly for those schools that are founded by the religious bodies. Hence coining of the term ‘government aided’ schools. Even in the previously entirely public owned schools, government has introduced cost sharing as it cultivates the culture of having the parents, too, share in the task of shouldering some operational costs like lunch & scholastic materials for their children, among others. Hence, the purely public school has quickly faded off the Ministry of Education vocabulary and the government aided has come to be the key term embracing all schools with a government attachment. Grounded in the Ugandan education system’s practice of joint education service delivery, without losing sight of the bulk of private education providers, this study sought to test whether the quality of education delivered today is better, than what it would be if one stakeholder provided the service. The study in general investigated the problems that affect the Ugandan school system, reviewed government position in lower levels of academia, and gave policy recommendations and suggestions of boosting school performance in light of the current performance. A low resource base is reported as one of the key problems that Ugandan schools still have to grapple with. It in turn has accounted for substandard infrastructure, poor library systems, inadequate teacher remunerations and appalling student housing problems in a number of schools, among other challenges. The government stewardship through the Ministry of Education and Sports was also found wanting in some aspects. Increasing funding to the education sector was one of the recommended policy interventions. Consultation of all stake holders even those in the private sector was highly encouraged in order to foster unity and flatten the ground between different school ownerships. This is projected to reduce the gap between private and public institutions and build a more sound education system founded in performance & qualitative delivery as opposed to institutional ownership. The coverage of this study could have been wider, but time and monetary resources were key hampering factors to a more exhaustive and comprehensive coverage. It is therefore my strong recommendation that a corrective study ought to be done. This should raise more palliative approaches to improving performance between public and private sector. The government also needs to realise that Uganda is a developing country and education is a priority that is highly needed to achieve and sustain development. They should therefore control most of the educational institutions as opposed to leaving majority of them in the hands of private institution owners. The government too needs to improve its performance as regards the role of stewardship in its institutions. In as far as achieving the objectives of the study are concerned, the study was largely successful.
- ItemOptimisation of rural biomass waste to energy systems(Concordia University Montreal, Quebec, Canada, 2012) Namuli, RachelBiomass waste to energy conversion systems were traditionally installed on rural farms to manage manure disposal and mitigate odour. These systems provide heating and electricity and are increasingly viewed as sources of revenue. Poorly operated or sized systems will not realise revenue. For farms that would like to install such systems, there is no tool available that optimises the systems prior to determination of their commercial viability. As such, there is a need to optimise these systems to determine the threshold herd size for commercially viability, and their maximum revenue. The associated optimisation problem is non-linear, non-convex and very difficult. Consequently, its solution is explored with a metaheuristic. The Tabu Search metaheuristic was adapted to solve this problem by: multi-period and diversification strategies that effectively search the solution space, handling of constraints using different strategies for searching feasible regions, with incursions into infeasible regions, and evaluation of a multi-objective function exploiting an approximation of the Pareto front. This dissertation is on research done to determine the threshold herd size for commercial viability of the biomass waste to energy conversion systems, and the maximum revenue from these systems. The threshold herd size was found by optimisation of the systems for different herd sizes. The threshold herd sizes were 80 dairy cows and 1200 swines for Quebec, and 100 dairy cows for Ontario. These considered co-digestion of manure and food waste, use of by-products, food waste tipping fees and an increase in the electricity tariff. The threshold herd size for Quebec also considered a favourable net metering contract. When digesting manure only, the threshold herd sizes were, 350 dairy cows for Quebec and 200 dairy cows for Ontario. The maximum revenue from the biomass waste to energy system was determined by optimising the system for a given herd size. Revenue was maximised by: minimising cost through proper sizing of the components, minimising consumption of propane and electricity from the grid, selling electricity to the utility, and capitalising on renewable energy incentives. The maximum revenue was determined for a herd size of 500 cows, and recommendations were made on its mode of operation