Faculty of Agricultural Sciences
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Browsing Faculty of Agricultural Sciences by Subject "Bitter cassava"
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- ItemEngineered food supplement excipients from bitter cassava for minimisation of cassava processing waste in environment(Future Foods Journal, 2020) Tumwesigye, Kashub Steven; O’Brien, E.; Oliveira, J.C.; Crean, A.; Sousa-Gallagher, Maria JoseUnchecked large-scale rudimentary upstream (sub-merged and solid state) fermentation processes of bitter cas- sava roots into alcohol have often contributed significantly to agricultural wastes into environment. Thus, the study explored a proven valorisation methodology, Simultaneous Release Recovery Cyanogenesis (SRRC) along with intact bitter cassava polysaccharide-rich derivatives (CWF), as an apt to find alternative materials for food supplement excipients. Triplicate CWF powder, peeled or intact bitter cassava roots, were produced and analysed to determine crit- ical properties suitable in tablet making. Exclusion approach, using SRRC and compaction, was performed to select desired powder properties for tablet formulation. Microcrystalline cellulose, with known properties for developing drug excipients, was used as a validation reference material. Tablets, for disintegration time and in- vitro dissolution rates studies were produced using wet-granulation, and their potential to release and bio-avail Iron-Zinc investigated in-vitro (pHs 1.2 and 6.8 solutions, 37 0 C). Morphology and Iron-Zinc dissolution-release mechanisms were examined. Kinetic models were used to describe matrix dissolution and Iron-Zinc release mech- anisms. Intact root powder compaction capacity, depicted by hardness, was 4.3, 4.4 and 4.6 KG at 200, 500 and 700 MPa respectively. Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) showed Iron-Zinc inclusion altered tablet morphol- ogy. Efficient matrix dissolution and Iron and Zinc release were achieved, showing apex recovery efficiency (98%, 30–45 min). Fitted models well-explained dissolution and release mechanisms (mean R 2 = 0.95), demonstrating adequacy. SRRC-improved intact bitter cassava was confirmed as potential alternative excipient’s matrix for Iron and Zinc release and bioavailability. Thus, this approach is practical for indirect waste elimination, and can promote strategy for sustainable valorisation of agricultural wastes and alternative functional food supplements delivery system.
- ItemIntegrated process standardisation as a zero-based approach to bitter cassava waste elimination and widely-applicable industrial biomaterial derivatives(Chemical Engineering and Processing Journal, 2016) Tumwesigye, Kashub Steven; Peddapatla, R.V.G.; Crean, A.; Oliveira, J.C.; Sousa Gallagher, Maria JoseIntegrated standardised methodology for biopolymer derivatives (BPD) production from novel intact bitter cassava was demonstrated by desirability optimisation of simultaneous release, recovery, cyanogenesis (SRRC) process. BPD were evaluated for yield and colour using buffer (0,2,4 % v/v), cassava waste solids (15,23,30 % w/w), and extraction time (4,7,10 minutes). Nearly all the root was transformed into BPD, with higher yield and colour in comparison to starch extrinsically processed. Maximum global desirability, predicted efficient material balance, buffer 4.0 %w/v, cassava waste solids 23 %w/w and extraction time, 10 minutes, producing BPD yield, 38.8 % wb Validation using buffer, 3.3% w/v, cassava waste solids, 30 % w/w and extraction time, 10 minutes, produced 40.7 % wb BPD. SEM, DSC, TGA, FTIR and moisture barrier analyses revealed a uniform microstructure and high thermal stability of BPD and film, thus demonstrating efficient performance of the standardised integrated methodology. Hence, processing intact cassava root as a standardised integrated methodology could be used to produce sustainable low cost BPD for a broad range of applications. Methodologies designed around standard integrated procedures, matching zero-based approach to contamination, are novel strategies, and if used effectively can eliminate cassava wastes and recover BPD resources as sustainable biomaterials.
- ItemNew sustainable approach to reduce cassava borne environmental waste and develop biodegradable materials for food packaging applications(Food Packaging and Shelf Life Journal, 2016) Tumwesigye, Kashub Steven; Oliveira, J.C.; Sousa-Gallagher, Maria JoseTransforming waste cassava into a sustainable resource requires a new approach and redesign of the current processing methodologies. Bitter cassava cultivars have been employed mainly as an emergency famine food, but could also be used as a value-added material for packaging. Processing of intact bitter cassava can minimize waste, and produce low-cost added value biopolymer packaging films for targeted applications. This study developed an improved simultaneous release, recovery and cyanogenesis (SRRC) downstream processing methodology for sustainable reduction of waste and development of film packaging material using intact bitter cassava. SRRC approach produced peeled (BP) and intact (BI) bitter cassava biopolymer derivatives. BI showed significantly higher yields ensuring 16% waste decrease with no environmental impact caused by discard residues. SRRC was very effective in reducing the total cyanogen content to within Codex minimum safety limits, demonstrating that the peeling of bitter cassava process can be avoided. Transparent films were produced using the casting method from both BP and BI derivatives. BI films were more transparent and homogeneous, less soluble, less permeable to moisture, less hydrophilic, more permeable to oxygen and carbon-dioxide, sealable, lower cost, than the BP. Hence, intact bitter cassava and SRRC can be used as sustainable, safe, integrative process solution for high value-added product (e.g., packaging film) production from low-cost biobased materials.
- ItemNovel Intact Bitter Cassava: Sustainable Development and Desirability Optimisation of Packaging Films(Food Bioprocess Technol Journal, 2016) Tumwesigye, Kashub Steven; Oliveira, J.C.; Sousa-Gallagher, Maria Jose; Montañez, J. C.Novel biomaterials and optimal processing conditions are fundamental in low-cost packaging material production. Recently, a novel biobased intact bitter cassava derivative was developed using an intrinsic, high-throughput downstream processing methodology (simultaneous release recovery cyanogenesis). Processing of intact bitter cassava can minimise waste and produce low-cost added value biopolymer packaging films. The objective of this study was to (i) develop and characterise intact bitter cassava biobased films and (ii) determine the optimal processing conditions, which define the most desirable film properties. Films were developed following a Box-Behnken design considering cassava (2, 3, 4 % w/v), glycerol (20, 30, 40 % w/w) and drying temperature (30, 40, 50 °C) and optimized using multi-response desirability. Processing conditions produced films with highly significant (p < 0.05) differences. Developed models predicted impact of processing conditions on film properties. Desirable film properties for food packaging were produced using the optimised processing conditions, 2 % w/v cassava, 40.0%w/w glycerol and 50 °C drying temperature. These processing conditions produced films with 0.3 %; transparency, 3.4 %; solubility, 21.8 %; water-vapour-permeability, 4.2 gmm/m2/day/kPa; glass transition, 56 °C; melting temperature, 212.6 °C; tensile strength, 16.3 MPa; elongation, 133.3 %; elastic modulus, 5.1MPa and puncture resistance, 57.9 J, which are adequate for packaging applications. Therefore, intact bitter cassava is a viable material to produce packaging films that can be tailored for specific sustainable, low-cost applications.