Assessment of apparent losses in urban water systems
Mutikanga, Harrison E.
Sharma, Saroj K.
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Apparent losses relate to water that is consumed but not paid for. Most research carried out in the last decade particularly in the United Kingdom focused mainly on leakage. Until now, there are no set procedures and guidelines for assessment of apparent losses. Much work remains to bring it to par with the available tools and methodologies for leakage management. In the absence of adequate data and proper methodology, most developed countries use default values, which tend to be lowest values for well-managed water systems, for computation of apparent losses. These may not be appropriate for developing countries. This paper presents a methodology for the assessment of different components of apparent losses based on field audit and operational data for Kampala city’s water distribution system in Uganda. Metering inaccuracies and illegal use have been found to be significant components of apparent losses. Appropriate intervention strategies have been developed based on the assessment.