Antecedents and outcomes of employee engagement in soft drink industry in Uganda
This study sought to establish the relationship between antecedents and outcomes of employee engagement in the soft drink industry in Uganda. The specific objectives of this study were (1) to ascertain the relationship between engagement antecedents and employee engagement; (2) to determine the relationship between employee engagement and the work outcomes; (3) to establish whether after controlling for the antecedents of engagement, employee engagement will predict unique variance in work outcomes. Adopting a pragmatic philosophy with a sequential mixed methods strategy starting with quantitative cross-sectional survey design (N = 210) followed by key informant interviews with managers the researcher examined the relationship between nine antecedents, employee engagement and four outcomes - job satisfaction, organizational commitment, OCB and turnover intent. Self-administered Questionnaire of four scales were administered to sampled employees of soft drink industry Kampala, Mukono and Buikwe districts of Uganda. Hypotheses were tested through correlation and hierarchical regression analysis techniques. All the nine antecedent variables studied were significantly correlated with employee engagement and employee engagement was significantly correlated with job satisfaction, organizational commitment, OCB and turnover intention. For the job satisfaction model, the hierarchical regression analysis results suggested that employees who experienced a high degree of role clarity, high degree of compensation fairness, and high opportunities for development, also reported being more likely to be satisfied with their place of employment. For the organizational commitment model, the hierarchical regression analysis results shows that three antecedent variables demonstrated a significant relation with organizational commitment, suggesting that employees who experienced a high degree of role clarity, high degree of job security, and high opportunities for development, also reported being more likely to be committed to their organization. For the OCB model, the hierarchical regression analysis results shows that five antecedent variables demonstrated a significant relation with OCB - role clarity, collaboration, job security, compensation fairness, and development. For the turnover intent model, the hierarchical regression analysis found the significant antecedents to be collaboration, social support, reward/recognition, compensation fairness and development. This research has validated and extended the engagement model and social exchange theory in the Uganda context. The only antecedent that is significant in all the four outcome models is development. The recommendation is that for businesses to improve their employee outcomes (job satisfaction, organizational commitment, OCB and reduction of turnover intent) they should develop and nurture strategies for improvement of the significant antecedents and employee engagement by concentrating on employee development, compensation fairness, role clarity, job security, collaboration and organizational support. Amazingly, reward/recognition as well as job design characteristics and material resources were found to be insignificant in the outcome models.
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